Energy -Kinetic energy: the energy a body has because of its motion. Ek = 1/2 . m . v

-Potential energy: the energy a body has because of its position or condition.

Ep = m . g . h When you approach the ball, your body has kinetic energy and you want to turn that into potential energy. THE PHYSICS OF VOLLEYBALL Works Cited -BBC News by Victoria Gill

-“Real World Physics Problems” by Franco Normani

(http://www.real-world-physics-problems.com/physics-of-volleyball.html)

-“The Physics of Volleyball” by Tiffany T.

(http://www.east-buc.k12.ia.us/02_03/ce/tt/tt.htm)

-"Tangient LLC"; by Eric Ablett, Dominick Bellizzi, Ryan Bowse, James Byers, Sarah Cove, Max Dobrusin, Adam Frey, Jeff Hanke, Ryan Koopmans, Julie Newcomb, and Carole Snitzer.

(http://sportsphysics101.wikispaces.com/Physics+and+Volleyball)

-"Tina and James's Physics of Volleyball" (http://www.mrfizzix.com/volleyball/)

- "Topend Sports", by Rob Wood (http://www.topendsports.com/sport/volleyball/physics.htm)

-Moellendorf, Suzanne. The Physics of Volleyball. 1999

(http://www2.hesston.edu/Physics/Volleyball/paper.htm)

- "Volleyball Court Central" (http://www.volleyball-court-central.com/volleyball_clipart.html)

- "Advanced Level Mathematics: Mechanics 1"; Quadling, Douglas; Cambridge University Press; 2002

- "IGCSE Physics"; Duncan, Tom; Hodder Murray; 2001 Defense Serving Hitting DISPLACEMENT Definition: change in position of an object such as the player or ball

- happens when players move

set, bump, dig, spike

- happens when the ball moves

ball moves from player to player

ball moves from one side of the net to the other

Change in Displacement= Df - Di VELOCITY Definition: the speed of something in a given direction

V=d/t

Used to measure

how fast a player moves

how fast the ball moves ACCELERATION Definition: the rate of change of velocity per unit of time

a = (Vf-Vi)/ (tf-ti) Used to find

speed of a player whose velocity increases and decreases during a certain amount of time

player moves forward and speeds up= positive acceleration

player moves forward and slows down= negative acceleration Example: GRAVITY Definition: is the force that pulls together all matter Gravity affects everything gravity is what makes the ball return to the ground

without gravity there would be no game Newton's law Newton's first law- Every object remains in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless forces act on it to change that state. Examples:

when the ball is falling it will continue to fall until it hits the ground or is passed by another player

volleyball net will not move unless its hit by a player or the ball Newton's second law- When a force of F newtons acts on an object of mass m kg, it produces an acceleration a . Equation:

F=m.a Example:

the force a ball is hit with. Newton's third law- For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (normal contact force) Example:

when the ball hits a player's arms WORK In order for work to be done

the object must move when force is applied to it

the object must move in the direction that force has been applied to it

In a volleyball game a lot of work is being done because the ball is continuously being hit around the court (pass, set, hit, serve)

Equation: Work = F x D

Example problem: If a player applies a force of 75 Newtons (N) to a volleyball and hits it 5 meters (m) into the court how much work has been done? Defense includes passing and digging the ball

Cushion hard hits and swing on the slow ones

The physics in defense include

- displacement

- velocity

- force (Impulse momentum theorem) The physics in serving include

- average velocity

- average acceleration The physics in hitting include

speed

placement of the set- needed to determine when to start your approach

distance- needed to travel to be able to hit the ball in time

kinetic energy to potential energy

momentum Where:

-g is the acceleration due to gravity (equal to 9.8 m/s2 on earth)

-H is the height of the net

-hmax is the maximum height reached by the ball

-ho is the initial height of the ball at the serve location

-V is the initial serve velocity of the ball

θ-is the initial angle the ball makes with the horizontal (and above it)

-Point A is the serve location

-Point B is the location just above the net, through which the ball passes

-Point C is the location on the court where the ball lands Where:

-La is the distance from the serve location (behind the end line) to the net, along the direction the volleyball is served

-Lb is the arbitrary distance from the net to where the ball lands on the other side of the court, along the direction the volleyball is served

-d is the distance beyond the net where the ball lands

-aα is the angle the volleyball trajectory makes with the side line PHYSICS

OF SPORTS THE THE PHYSICS

OF THE IMPOSSIBLE

GOALS 2 THE MAGNUS EFFECT AND AIR RESISTANCE - aerodynamic force that reduces time of the ball inthe air - the pressure is greater on the top of the ball

due to Bernoulli's principle

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# The Physics of Sports

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