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Global vs. Local: Implications for Myanmar in the Reform Period

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Jessica Olney

on 7 August 2013

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Transcript of Global vs. Local: Implications for Myanmar in the Reform Period

Global vs. Local:
Exploring pros, cons and possibilities for Myanmar
Globalization
Localization
Globalization (n): the process
of international integration
arising from the interchange
of world views, products,
ideas, and other aspects of
culture
Localization (n): A process of economic
or social development which emphasizes
diversity through local resources, culture, language and characteristics.
vs.
How can you see global and local economy in your own community?
Think about different goods and services, e.g. food, energy, cultural behaviors, natural resources, household items
What are pros and cons of global vs. local economy?
-Economy
-Environmental impact
-Social/cultural impact
...Now let's look at some global and local examples of the 3Ps
People
Planet
Profit
{{An alternative model for sustainable economies: The 3 types of capital}}
Are Myanmar's social, economic and environmental activities mostly global or local?

How is this going to change during the reform period?

What are the pros & cons of the coming changes? What will be gained and lost?

What can Myanmar's leaders and youth do to make sure that the coming changes are good for People, Planet AND Profit?
West vs. East

Globalization
often means that
Western
values are
imposed
on other,
non-Western
cultures.
What
are the main
values
in
Western
and
Asian
cultures? Do you
think
one of these
value
systems is
better
than the
other
?
West

-
individualism
-industry, technology
-freedom and rights
-rationalism
East

-
collectivism
-community and family
-loyalty
-tradition

The 3 P's: Triple-bottom line economics
...what has been the impact
of Western culture on the Earth?
ecological ethnicity
: the idea that culture is
interconnected with environment - a linkage
that is often destroyed through globalization

DISCONNECTION FROM NATURE.

FAILURE TO VALUE LOCAL PEOPLE'S
ACCESS TO LOCAL RESOURCES.

connectedness
wise, sustainable management and use of resources
diversity of cultures, languages, spirituality, species
**70% of the world's languages come from the places with the most biodiversity!**
Looking at Myanmar...
How can we see ecological ethnicity in Myanmar?
Ideas from around the world:
How have
other countries developed, while also preserving
ethnicity and tradition?

*Ecuador
-legislation -public relations -cultural promotion
*Bhutan
-prioritizing well being (People)
over monetary wealth (Profit)
U.S.
-Recreating lost ancient culture through festivals,
where youth reconnect to ancient traditions and
re-build community and wisdom - "neotribalism"

Let's look at some examples that show the connection between land rights, land management, and sustainable development.
case study #1: Land use planning and defense in Laos
case study #2: Community food baskets in Ecuador
case study #3: Reforestation in Kenya, w/ Nobel Peace Prize winner Wangari Maathai
case study #4: International aid to strengthen land rights in East Timor, Kenya, Ethiopia
In this workshop we are going to:

~learn about how global and local economy affect culture and environment

~look at examples from around the world about globalization as well as its alternatives

~open our eyes to the many creative, just and
sustainable ways local communities are
responding to the problems caused
by globalization
Keys to the success of the project:

-Train the local authorities first -- to value land
rights and environmental protection

-Work on long-term basis with each community
(3 months/village) to map out land according to
usage

-NGO acts as intermediary to improve the
relationship between authority and villagers by
building trust with both sides

-Authorities and villagers sign land use map together

-Map can be presented to outsiders who come to grab
land and land is defended by BOTH the local authority
as well as the community
Keys to the success of the project:

-NGO helps farmers grow local, traditional foods
with sustainable agriculture practices

-Rural farmers are directly linked to urban consumers
to ensure they have a market for their crops

-Urban consumers are guaranteed organic, affordable
crops from the farmers
Activity: LUPLA map of NEED
Activity: Economically & environmentally sustainable agricultural market development
Keys to the success of the project:

-Strong, respected leader stands up for sustainable
development

-One organization gets many people to participate in
environmental activities (Green Belt Movement)

-Motivate grass roots women to take charge of
sustainable development activities

Result: 34 million trees planted, restoring Kenya's
ecosystems and communities
Are any of these examples useful
for Myanmar?

Community land use mapping

-Community mapping process helping enforce Lao government's policies allowing communal land title (2006)

-Villagers, NGO and authority work together to create a map, based on the ways land is used in the community

-Community also receives training on land rights, community forestry and land use planning training during mapping process

-Land categories include residential, road, agricultural, grassland, plantation, conservation, cemetery, spirit forest, production forest

-Community LUP and mapping cannot completely prevent land grabbing - the idea is that if authorities are partners in the mapping process, they will help defend the community's land rights


U.S. Aid Land Tenure &
Property Rights Portal

http://usaidlandtenure.net/
Part 2: Localization, land rights and
sustainable development
How
does secure
land tenure

help
communities

achieve
local,
sustainable
development?
Key factors:

-Funding and support from large international donor (USAID)

-Activities focus on helping developing countries improve land laws and their enforcement

-Value placed on capacity building, human rights, women's rights, education for technical experts

land tenure = when land is securely
owned by an individual or community
Full transcript