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Codes and conventions of dramatic writing for Grade 12 Writer's Craft.

Vivian Ha

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of Drama

Vivian Ha
what is drama?
Drama is a type of literature. It uses the plot and character elements in fiction, and the sights and sounds in poetry, becoming its own unique genre by being performed in front of an audience.

Drama is a Greek word meaning "action" or "doing".

A drama is meant to be rather than

A playwright is just the of the play.

The actor's interpretation, director's vision, and technician's skill in stage craft are all crucial to
bring it alive.
elements of drama
The written version of a drama, that acts as a map for the actors. It contains directions, cast and dialogue.
acts and scenes
Scripts are made of acts, which are divided into scenes. Each scene or act often indicates a change in time and setting.
stage directions
Stage directions usually describe how the actors should move around and speak, as well as provide instructions on the lighting, sound effects and music of certain scenes.
The location and time of the play, and also the lighting and sound effects. The setting helps present a certain mood or atmosphere.
cast of characters
The cast of characters in a drama are at the beginning of a script. It is also sometimes called a dramatic personae. It may also describe the background of each character.
To understand the meaning of plays, you must determine the
and , and the character interaction that establishes them.
Examine what the characters say and do and interpret the meaning behind it

What do they say about themselves?
what kind of face or gestures do they make when speaking?
Do their words match their deeds and motives?
Stage directions also hold information about the setting of the play.

The playwright could also describe how the furniture is placed and describe the shapes and colours of the props and clothing.

Stage directions will also give instructions about how to set the lighting of the stage.

All of these set the mood and atmosphere of the play,

and help the audience determine what kind of issues and themes the play will revolve around.
of satire
Some playwrights may use a
pathetic fallacy,
in which the setting is changed to fit the feelings and emotions of a character.
Satire is a kind of style used to mock and make witty remarks at social conventions, beliefs and traditions.

Satire usually serves to bring large issues into light in the hopes of igniting social change.

when interpreting the meaning of plays, the viewer must also be able to recognize satirical tone if it is written in the script.

internal structure
external structure
The part when the play begins, introducing thecharacters and background information.

The way that it begins is very crucial, as its purpose is to lure the audience’s attention.

The playwright must decide what kind of impact they want the introduction to have on the audience, and what the purpose of it in the entire play.
dramatic incitement
The part of the play that raises the main action of the play.

It is when a problem or dilemma presents itself, and poses the play’s

dramatic question.
Where the main action of the play takes place.

The characters react to the dramatic incitement and the developments that may form from it.

This is similar to the in a short story or novel.
rising action
Late in the play, when the dramatic question is answered.
The final part of the play, where the problems and events are concluded. This part is also called the
Points out human weakness and limitations by making us laugh at characters.

Plots are usually implausible, with coincidences and mistakes. True comedy ends happily. The characters are likeable and ordinary

Portrays potentials that have been missed.

It usually contains characters that are noble and respected.

It also has tragic heroes, who in the end face an unfortunate fate at the end of the play due to a flaw in their character or judgment
A play that combines the elements of both tragedy and comedy.

It may have a happy ending to a tragic story.
Melodramas are about human anguish and suffering in simplistic ways.

Like tragic heroes, the main characters face an unfortunate fate, but not always from their own doing.

The characters do not have as much depth, and the endings are usually happy
prose & verse
pace and tone
dramatic irony
When determining a playwright’s style, it’s important to analyze his/her language.

It has a large influence on how the audience understands the characters and mood of the play.
Plays may be written in or

Prose is used as a more casual speech, while verse is more dramatic.

Usually characters that are noble speak in verse, and comic characters speak in prose.
Short sentences moves the plot on a quicker pace, which may be used to build up excitement and tension, as well as for jokes and playfulness.

Sometimes short dialogue may lead to a longer one, which gradually brings the audience in to focus more on the significance of the long passage.
To help the audience understand a character’s inner thoughts, playwrights can either use an or

The aside is when the character whispers, or makes a short comment directed to the audience.

The soliloquy is when the character expresses their inner thoughts and feelings in great detail, performed alone.

Dramatic irony is a device that lets the audience know more about a situation than the characters in a play.

Therefore, the audience can then see an outcome different from that of the characters.

It creates tension in the audience, and helps focus on the action of the play.
dramatic forms
and styles
motion pictures,
There are many different types of dramas, such as opera, mime, dance, music and poetry.

can be described as a play set to music. Operas may be continuous in song, or alternate between speech and song.

such as ballet has always been connected with dramatic representation along with music and performance.

With the script writer is important but not a dominant role, as the director is the one that decides how the scenes should be interpreted and portrayed.

In and have also developed dramatic forms, and due to the lack of a visual presentation, the writer and actors stress out the sounds and sights with poetic quality.

Adams, Janice Lynn Oberg, Cathy Costello, and Stephen Naylor. Reading and writing for success senior. Toronto: Harcourt Canada, 2001. Print.

Barclay, Susanne, Peter Weeks, and Judy Coghill. Canadian students' guide to language, literature and media. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.

"The range of dramatic forms and styles." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/692967/dramatic-literature/51080/The-range-of-dramatic-forms-and-styles>.
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