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Copy of Ireland

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Soledad Mori

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Ireland

Division between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

In the Republic of Ireland, Irish is the first official language and English is a second official language. 2% of the population use Irish.

In Northern Ireland, the official languages are: English, Irish and Ulster Scots. like the Republic of Ireland, the majority of the population uses English

History of
Ireland

500-150 B.C.
The Celts arrive and settle in Ireland
1167-1169
Norman mercenaries invaded Ireland. The English
laid roots on Ireland.
Imposition of the English law

New towns
The English settled mostly in the south-east of
Ireland
1534

Under the rule of Henry VIII
Irish local chiefs who tried to resist the English rule were violently put down.
1541
King Henry VIII was acknowledged as King of Ireland by the English people living in Ireland.

During the First Decades of the XVII Century

Britain's King James I sent thousands of Protestant English farmers and Presbyterian Scots and Welsh to Ireland to take over land owned by Catholic farmers, mostly in the north.
The Plantation scheme was applied in Ireland.



Ireland
Origin of
Irish Gaelic
or Irish

432 A.D.
Saint Patrick Arrived.

Christianization of
Ireland
1692

New laws which forbade Catholics to vote, own land or practice their religion were enacted. Such laws remained in effect until 1829.
1803 Act of Union
The whole of Ireland became part of the United Kingdom.



"The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland"


1845-1849
The Great Famine in Ireland

Deaths

Migration



Decrease of population
1918-1921
Anglo-Irish War


1922

Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland
(Ulster) (Irish Free State)
(1927)"The United
Kingdom
of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland"


Gaelic was restored in the
Republic of Ireland

Gaelic became a national language

Gaelic began to be promoted in the educational system
1968
The Troubles Northern Ireland


Nationalists Unionists

Mostly Catholics Mostly Protestants

They were in favour They were loyal to
of being part of the Great Britain
Republic of Ireland
1998-

Good Friday Agreement
2005-2006

The European Union recognized Irish as
One of the official languages


English in
Ireland

Malapropism
Formularies instead of formalities
windystool
instead of
windowstill
Words and expressions that have special meanings in Irish
English
Bold (poorly behaved)
Gas (funny)
You´re a gas man
Grand (fine)
I´m grand.
Neck (nerve)
you have some
neck
Only (absolutely) This is only delicious.

Cheers (hello, goodbye, thank you)

Lexico-Semantic Aspect
BANSHEE
1771,
from phonetic spelling of Irish

bean sidhe

"female of the Elves," from

bean

"woman" plus
sidhe
, from
sith
"fairy"

or
sid
"fairy mound."


TORY
1566
from Irish
toruighe

"plunderer," originally "pursuer, searcher," from Old Irish
toirighim
"I pursue," from
toir
"pursuit,"
GALORE
1670s, from Irish
go leór
equivalent Scottish Gaelic
gu leóir

"sufficiently, enough"

Old Irish
roar

"enough"

HOOLIGAN
- Irish surname
Houlihan
.
- late 19th cent.: perhaps from Hooligan, the surname of a fictional rowdy Irish family in a music-hall song of the 1890s, also of a cartoon character.

COLLEEN
Irish
cailin
"girl"
diminutive of
caile
"girl, woman"
Words that are currently used in English, but came
from Irish

Phonological
Aspect
Vowel Sounds
Verbs




Reduction of number of verb forms
Seen and done as preterite, went as past participle, also found with some other verbs like come and use.
I wonder why he done that.
I haven’t went there for a long time now.
She come up to see her aunt when she was dyin’.


Connectors
1. And can be used with the meaning of: although, while, when.


Cleft Sentence
It was very well that he looked.
Nouns
1.Double Plural
the addition of /əz/ to existing plurals which end in -s.
newses
pantses


Pronouns
1. The second person singular takes two distinct forms:
ye, ya (singular)
youse, yes (plural)


Double negative
I don´t want no soup.
Demonstratives
Use of Them instead of those
Adverbs
1. Use of now as an intensifier
She had three children in five year now.

2. Use of never to refer to a single occasion

Overuse of the Definite Article
You have to be the eighteen to get the licence.

Use of Yes and No
Irish lacks words meaning yes and no.
Hiberno-English speakers use only the same verb in the question in the negative or affirmative form, often without yes or no.
"Are you coming home soon?" – "I am."
"Is your mobile charged?" – "It isn't."

Verbs: Perfective Aspect
Immediate perfective
After + V-ing (+ O)
They're after leaving off more than 20 workers.

Resultative perfective
Object + Past Participle
She has the housework done.
Have you ‘Ulysses’ read?
Verbs: Habitual Aspect
This can be expressed in one of three ways: (i) by does + be or (ii) by bees (exclusively northern) or (iii) by inflectional -s, above all in the first and third persons (common on the east coast).
Durative habitual
I do be worrying about the children

In southern Irish English, the durative is expressed via do(es) be
She does be reading books

Iterative habitual
The kids bees up late at night (Northern Irish English)
They calls that part down there ’High Street"
In southern Irish English he iterative via the inflectional -s on lexical verb forms, i.e. with the latter do does not occur
Grammatical
Aspect

14th century
the English colonists
were assimilated into
the Irish Culture.

late 15th century
The Pale

The Reformation in
England
1800
Irish was the
first language of
50% of Ireland

Imposition of
the English language over
the population of Ireland
During the 19th century
the number of Irish speakers decreased
Introduction of the
universal English
language education
English became the language of two important institutions
the Catholic Church
the independence Movement
Before the 17th century:
Irish was the first language of all the Irish population
2009-2010
The Government of the Republic of Ireland started a 20 year-long plan to make Ireland a bilingual country

Consonant Sounds
No /h/ dropping
/l/ is mostly realized as clear l
labio-velar glide
voiced /w/ and voiceless /hw/
-ing ending realized
with a final nasal velar / /
(often) realization of the endings "-y", "-ey" and "-ee" as /i/
Alpico alvelar fricative (slit t) at the end of words and between vowels.

Rhoticity
The contrast between the dental fricatives and the alveolar plosives /t/ and /d/ tends to be lost sometimes (but not always).

Frequent Yod
coalescence
/t/ + /j/ or
/d/ + /j/
Assimilations


LEPRECHAUN
c. 1600-from Irish

lupracan
, metathesis of Old Irish
luchorpan
literally "a very small body," from
lu
"little" plus
corpan
, diminutive of corp "body"
Differences in the
stressed syllables
with respect to Standard English
Disci`pline
Lame`ntable
Archite`cture
De`ficit
In`tricate

1366
Statutes of Kilkenny: All Englishmen in Ireland should use English surnames, speak English and follow English customs-or forfeit their lands.
1690
Battle of the Boyne



Victory of "the Ascendancy" (Anglo-Irish ruling class)


Through the 18th century
English became increasingly dominant.
Anglo-Irish or Hiberno- English?
Anglo-Irish
is the English of those whose ancestral mother tongue is English

Hiberno English
is the English of those whose ancestral mother tongue is Gaelic.
TO KEEN
"lament," 1811, from Irish
caoinim
"I weep, wail, lament," from Old Irish
coinim
"I wail."

By 1900, 85% of Ireland´s population spoke English
Brogue
(Irish accent)-
1689- actor Thomas Sheridan

From the the 16th century onwards many Irish began to emigrate to other countries.


eg.
Newfound land (first English speaking community in the world)

Australia

USA

Ulster English was developed
from Lowland Scots and forms of Northern English which were taken to Ulster

Verb Forms: "am not"
In Irish English,
amn´t
is used as
the contraction of "am not".
"the Blarney"

the gift of eloquence
Wagon (a disagreeable woman)
Full transcript