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Earthquakes

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Fleur Hamilton-Vincent

on 19 August 2014

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Transcript of Earthquakes

Earthquakes
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
A geohazard is a harmful event event caused by the earth. There are two different types of geohazards there are weather hazards and natural hazards. For example earthquakes, volcanoes, tornados, tsunamis and landslides are all different types of geohazards.
In Christchurch, New Zealand February 22, 2011 there was a terrible earthquake it had a magnitude of 6.3 on the Richter scale, it might not sound like much but it was very close to the surface so it was more dangerous.This earthquake was was caused by movement along a fault line that does not look to have broken the surface. The earthquake was in the middle of the day (12:51 pm) so everyone was at work, school or out on their lunch break. With everyone outside and milling around it was easier for people to be hurt, sadly 185 people died. Two thirds of Christchurch homes were damaged in the earthquake. The Christchurch rebuild is estimated to cost $40 billion.
Bolt, B. (n.d.). Methods of reducing earthquake hazards. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176199/earthquake/59574/Methods-of-reducing-earthquake-hazards
Bryan, K., King, D., & Fellner, K. (2009). Wow! das Lexikon. München: Dorling Kindersley.
Chile earthquake of 1960. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 7, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1421130/Chile-earthquake-of-1960
Earthquake Facts, Earthquake Information, Earthquake Videos, Earthquake Photos - National Geographic. (n.d.). National Geographic. Retrieved August 5, 2014, from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/earthquake-profile/
Facts About the Richter Scale. (n.d.). Facts About The Richter Scale. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://www.earthquakefacts.net/Richter-Scale.html
Harris, W. (n.d.). Earthquakes safe buildings. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved August 17, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/structural/earthquake-resistant-buildings.htm
History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian. (n.d.). History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/your-cell-phone-could-soon-become-part-of-a-massive-earthquake-detection-system-152877868/
Japan earthquake could cost $309 billion. (2011, March 23). CNNMoney. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://money.cnn.com/2011/03/23/news/international/japan_earthquake_cost/
Monitoring Earthquakes. (n.d.). / Earthquakes / Science Topics / Learning / Home. Retrieved August 7, 2014, from http://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Earthquakes/Monitoring-Earthquakes
New Zealand Earthquakes. (n.d.). / Earthquakes / Science Topics / Learning / Home. Retrieved August 4, 2014, from http://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Earthquakes/New-Zealand-Earthquakes
Richter scale. (n.d.). HowStuffWorks. Retrieved August 10, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/question142.htm
Seismometer. (n.d.). - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seismometer#Teleseismometers
Stuart, I., & Wethey, D. (2010). Quake: the big Canterbury earthquake of 2010. Auckland, N.Z.: Harper Collins.
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APA formatting by BibMe.org.
Christchurch
Earthquake
In 2011, near the east coast of Honshu, Japan there was an earthquake. It had a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. The earthquake resulted from the thrust faulting on or near the subduction zone plate boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. At least 15,703 people were killed by the earthquake and or the tsunami that followed and 332,395 buildings, 2,126 roads, 56 bridges and 26 railways were also damaged. There is an estimated cost for the Japan earthquake of $309 billion.
Japan
Earthquake
A seismograph is a machine, it draws wiggly lines to show the level of motion during an earthquake.The seismograph is quite effective because scientists always hold them in a very solid position so the seismograph can receive the seismic waves properly. A good thing about the seismograph is that it can measure the magnitude (the size,) the depth (how deep) and the location (where it occurred) of the earthquake.
Seismograph
Geohazards
Earthquakes
An earthquake is when two tectonic plates collide, causing the earth to shake.Earthquakes occur on plate boundaries. Earthquakes can also happen on fault lines one in particular called the ring of fire.
Earthquakes can cause injury or even death to people for example: falling buildings and power lines, fires started by a gas leak. People can not only be injured during an earthquake but they can be mentally traumatised. The victims of many serious earthquakes can suffer from anxiety, depression and homelessness.
Effects of earthquakes on people
Effects of earthquakes on the environment
The environment can be effected in many different ways during an earthquake. For example, landslides, tsunamis and liquefaction (this is when water pressure from an earthquake changes solid earth into a more liquid form.)
Chile
Earthquake
On May 22, 1960 off the southern coast of Chile there was a magnitude 9.5 earthquake, the biggest earthquake recorded in the 20th century. The day before the big earthquake there were a series of foreshocks, the largest was a magnitude 7.9, larger than a lot of serious earthquakes. The earthquake occurred along a fault line that stretched over 900–1,000 km of the Nazca Plate, which then subducted under the South American Plate. More than 2,000 people were killed, 3,000 were injured and 2 million were homeless. There was approximately $550 million of damage in southern Chile.
Richter Scale
The Richter Scale is a method of measuring the intensity of earthquakes.The Richter Scale is effective because it uses the amount of energy released, when an earthquake occurs, to measure the magnitude of that earthquake. The Richter Scale is good because it's system is simple. Even kids can understand how big an earthquake is from the Richter Scale. The Richter Scale being simple can also be a bad thing because it is not as accurate for scientists.
Preventing/minimising the
effects of earthquakes
Preventing earthquakes
Right now scientists can not prevent earthquakes, but if they can predict them then those predictions can be used to help minimise the damage an earthquake can cause. Predictions can give people just enough time to strengthen buildings and or evacuate the area.
Minimising the effects of earthquakes
Scientists are attempting with not much luck to predict earthquakes. Scientists can predict where big earthquakes are going to happen because of the movement of the plates in the Earth and the area of fault zones.They also can make general guesses about when earthquakes might occur in a certain area, by detecting where pressure is building along fault lines. But all these 'predictions' are really just educated guesses. If scientists could predict earthquakes accurately it would help to minimise the effects of earthquakes.
Predicting earthquakes
Building earthquake-safe buildings
Building new earthquake safe buildings could help minimise the effects of earthquakes. Having earthquake safe buildings can help to reduce injuries, death and property damage.Building these earthquake safe buildings is proving to be quite effective because engineers have worked out what they need to do to make buildings safer. They make sure buildings are made out of strong and lightweight materials. The buildings need to resist sideways forces (when an earthquake shakes something from side to side.) In general all buildings should not be too high compared with there width. Engineers have considered all these things and have successfully made earthquake safe buildings.
Other issues
Economic
Environmental
Social
Political
Pro
The seismograph helps people to measure the effects of earthquakes, which helps people to understand how to build earthquake safe buildings and cities.
Con
Sometimes people have to take down perfectly good buildings because they don't pass the new earthquake proof standards. They are wasting perfectly good material and it is not good for the environment.
Pro
With scientists now being able to predict where major earthquakes are going to occur it means that people have more time to do things like reinforce their houses, therefore saving money that they would have had to spend on repair costs.
Con
Using bearings or dampers to isolate buildings from the ground when making an earthquake safe building is expensive.
Pro
The advances of science in predicting earthquakes and making buildings safer makes people in earthquake prone areas feel safer in their everyday life.
Con
When building earthquake safe buildings people and families are forced out of their homes because their houses are unsafe and need to be reinforced or rebuilt.
Pro
Predicting earthquakes can give the government more time to help and prepare the community for the earthquake.
Con
The government can be slow to act because they don't think that an earthquake is that bad according to its magnitude on the Richter scale. For example a magnitude 6.3 like the one in Christchurch that killed 185 people would only be considered a noteworthy earthquake according to the Richter scale.
Bibliography
img4.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20120508060815/powerlisting/images/d/d8/Volcano_Eruption.jpg
phamilynews.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/blog_liquefaction.jpg
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Kinemetrics_seismograph.jpg
mishunderstanding.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/richter-scale.gif
cache.boston.com/universal/site_graphics/blogs/bigpicture/beichuan_05_29/beichuan94.jpg
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