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Infancy and Childhood

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Peter Baggetta

on 8 December 2016

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Transcript of Infancy and Childhood

Infancy
and
Childhood

Cognitive
Development
Social Development
Principles of
Growth:
Physical Development
Harlow (1959; 1962)
Food vs Security??
Attachment
- separation anxiety
- willingness to explore
- stranger anxiety
- reunion
Developmental Landmarks:
Estimate the ages on average at which children are able to perform the following behaviors:
Laugh
Pedal a tricycle
Sit without support
Walk unassisted
Stand on one foot for 10 seconds
Kicks ball forward
Laugh - 2 months
Pedal a tricycle - 2 years
Sit without support - 5-6 months
Walk unassisted - 12 months
Stand on one foot for 10 seconds - 4.5 years
Kicks ball forward - 20 months
1. Cephalocaudal

Newborns ~ 7 to 7½ pounds and 20 inches

By age 2 ~ half eventual adult height and weigh 27-30 pounds

Growth occurs in fits and starts

Overall weight gain outpaces gains in height = risk of childhood obesity
Locomotor Development:
Early motor development follows the cephalocaudal and proximodistal principles:
Can sit before they can walk
Trunk is controlled before the arms and legs
Gross motor skills are mastered before fine motor skills
Exploratory Behavior
Infants engage in three phases of exploratory behavior:

Birth to 4 months - looking, listening, watching movement and especially by mouthing objects

5 to 7 months - hands and eyes

By 8 or 9 months - crawling to extend explorations and carefully examine an object by fingering, poking and watching it
Piaget's Theory
Schemas
cognitive structures/organized patterns of thought
constructed to interpret experiences
Cognitive Adaptation:
Assimilation - interpret new experiences in terms of existing schemes or cognitive structures
Accommodation - modifying existing schemes in order to better fit new experiences
Sensorimotor Stage
birth to approximately 2 years
world understood through the senses/actions
centration on own body up to 7-9 months
Object Permanence and the A-not-B Error:
Understanding that objects continue to exist when not visible
4-8 months = “out of sight, out of mind”
8-12 months = improve looking and reaching skills but make the A-not-B error
1 year = A-not-B error overcome
18 months = object permanence is mastered
24 months = can play complex hide-and-seek games
Temperament
Temperament
Dimensions of temperament:
early, genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable ways to events
easiness and difficultness
Thomas and Chess (1986, 1999) - nine dimensions of infant behavior:
Typical mood
Regularity or predictability of biological functions
Tendency to approach or withdraw from new stimuli
Intensity of emotional reactions
Adaptability to new experiences and changes in routine
even tempered
typically content or happy
open and adaptable to new experiences
regular feeding and sleeping habits
tolerant of frustrations and discomforts
Difficult Temperament:
Slow-to-Warm-up
Temperament:
Categories of
Temperament
Easy Temperament:
active, irritable, and irregular in habits
often react negatively to changes
in routine
slow to adapt to new people or situations
cry frequently and loudly
often have tantrums
relatively inactive
somewhat moody
only moderately regular in daily schedules
slow to adapt to new people and situations
typically respond in mildly, rather
than intensely, negative ways
Goodness of Fit:
Thomas and Chess - goodness of fit between child and environment

How much child’s temperament compatible with the demands and expectations of the social world

Infants’ temperaments and parents’ parenting behaviors:
reciprocal influences and interactions over time
shapes the development of later personality development
Rapid Growth:
2. Proximodistal
Cognitive Development:
Maturation
Experience with physical environment
Knowledge constructed from interaction and built onto previous schemas
children active learners

construct understanding and knowledge of world from experiences

children's thinking different from adults

distinct stages
Jean Piaget
(1896-1980)
Perceptual salience - focus on most obvious features

Centration - attention only on
single aspect of a problem

Single classification - sort by
single dimension at one time
Irreversible thought - can't mentally undo an action

Static thought - fail to understand processes of change or transformations

Difficulty with tasks that require logic
Egocentrism:

view the world solely from one’s own perspective

difficulty recognizing other points of view
Preoperational
Stage
Concrete-Operations Stage
Mastering logical operations
- i.e. Conservation:
Vygotsky
Knowledge depends on social experiences

Cultural tools - language, writing, cultural values

Acquire tools through interaction with parents and other more experienced members of society
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD):
The gap between what a learner can accomplish independently and what can accomplish with the guidance and encouragement of a more skilled partner

Guided Participation:
Children’s active participation in culturally relevant activities with the aid and support of parents and other knowledgeable guides

Scaffolding:
Parents and more skilled others provide structured help and gradually reduce the help as the child becomes more competent
How social interaction fosters cognitive children’s growth
Contact Comfort
Parenting
What is the optimal parent-child interaction?
Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
Influence on Children's Behavior
Authoritarian = moody, easily annoyed, aimless
Influence of culture on parenting styles?

What does it mean to be a parent?

Should people be required to get a license to be a parent?

What discipline strategies would be most effective for development?
Permissive = impulsive, aggressive, self-centered, rebellious, aimless, low independence and achievement
Neglectful = aggressive, temper tantrums as early as 3 yrs, hostile, antisocial
Authoritative = best adjusted, cheerful, socially responsible, self-reliant, achievement-oriented
- emotional bond to another person
Comfort
Familiarity
Responsive
John Bowlby - Attachment Theory
forms basis of personality
caregiver key role in emotional regulation
0-2 months = no discrimnation/no fear of strangers
Separation/Stranger Anxiety ~ 8 months
Mary Ainsworth - "Strange Situation"
attachment vs exploration
Four Behaviors:
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