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F

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Daniel Deveney

on 9 May 2018

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Transcript of F

I
F
R
S
T
A
D
The Aims of First Aid
The 3 P's
P
P
P
Preserve
Prevent
Promote
Anaphylaxis
www.anaphylaxis.org.uk
Signs
and Symptoms
Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Causes
Assessment Process
The treatment given for any injury, or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or any other qualified person.
What is First Aid?
What are the
basic requirements
of a first aider?
What
responsibilities
does a first aider have?
Knowledge
Common sense
Calm
Confident
Empathy

Protection
Identify
Priorities
Maintain dignity
Communication
Document/record
Duty of Care
www.realfirstaid.co.uk/dutyofcare/
Priorities of Treatment
(Triage)
Disturbing images
Primary Survey
The Respiratory
System
Choking
Signs and Symptoms
Anaphylaxis
Causes
Asthma
Chest Injuries
Drowning
Hyperventilation
Treatment
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
1. Encourage Casualty to cough
2. Give up to 5 back blows
3. Give up to 5 abdominal thrusts
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3

Swelling
Difficulty breathing, hoarse voice
Dizziness, feeling faint
Skin rash
Pale, cold, clammy skin
Nausea, vomiting, cramps or diarrhoea
Page 15 onwards
Call 999/112
Lay casualty down
Help administer Auto Injector
Prepare for CPR
www.anaphylaxis.org.uk
Causes
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Difficulty breathing
Pale clammy skin
Cyanosis
Use of muscles in neck and upper chest to help casualty breathe

Help casualty sit upright
Help casualty use reliever inhaler
Remove casualty away from cause
Be calm, reassuring and take casualty's mind off the attack
Causes
Signs and Symptoms
Unnaturally deep, fast breathing
Attention seeking behaviour
Dizziness, faintness
Flushed skin, no cyanosis
Feeling of tight chest
May pass out for up to 30 seconds

Treatment
Be firm and calm, but reassuring
Move the casualty away from source
Coach the casualty's breathing
If the casualty shows signs of hypoxia, call for emergency help

Causes
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Dry Drowning
Wet Drowning
Secondary Drowning
Call 999/112 for emergency help
Do not put yourself at risk
If possible keep casualty horizontal
Perform CPR if necessary
Collapsed
Lung
Penetrating Chest Injury
Flail Chest
Angina &
Heart Attack
Fainting
Wounds and Bleeding
Effects of Blood Loss
The
Circulatory
System
Page 23 onwards
Causes
Heart
Normal Artery
Partially Blocked
Plaque
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Sit casualty down ('W' position)
Assist with Glyceryl Tri-Nitrate (G.T.N) medication
Reassure and remove cause of stress or anxiety
Give Aspirin if you suspect a heart attack - ask about allergies/blood thinners
Prepare for CPR
Onset

Pain

Location of Pain

Duration
Causes
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Pain or fright
Lack of food
Emotional stress
Inactivity
Heat exhaustion
Temporary loss of consciousness
Slow pulse
Pale, clammy skin
Quick recovery
Lay casualty down and raise legs
Remove causes of stress
Reassure casualty
Be aware of an underlying cause
Types of wound and
basic treatment
Contusion
Abrasion
Laceration
Incision
Puncture
Gun Shot
Amputation
De-gloved
10% Blood Loss
Consciousness - Normal

Skin - Normal

Pulse - Normal

Breathing - Normal


20% Blood Loss
Consciousness - May feel dizzy

Skin - Pale

Pulse - Slightly Raised

Breathing - Slightly Raised


30% Blood Loss
Consciousness - Low levels

Skin - Cyanosis, Cold, Clammy

Pulse - Rapid, Hard to Detect

Breathing - Rapid


40% Blood Loss
Consciousness - Unresponsive

Skin - Cyanosis, Cold, Clammy

Pulse - Undetectable

Breathing - Deep sighing Breaths


Types of Bleeding
Treatment
S
it ot Lay
E
xamine
ressure
ress
P
Embedded
Objects
Splinters
Do not remove if...
On a joint
Embedded in nose, ear or other orifice
Difficult to remove
Embedded deeply
Nosebleed
Causes
Bang to the nose
Picking it
Blowing it
Weather
High blood pressure
Fractured skull
Treatment
Seek Medical advice if ...
Lasts longer than 30 mins
Casualty is on anti-coagulants
They suffer from frequent nose bleeds
Eye Injury
Amputation
Internal
Bleeding
Crush Injury
Dust or Dirt
Serious Eye Injuries
Treat Casualty for Bleeding and shock
Call 999/112 for emergency help
Dress the wound with a non fluffy dressing
Wrap amputated part in a plastic bag
Put plastic bag on a bag of ice to preserve it
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Signs of Shock
Pain at site of bleed
Bruising or swelling
Difficulty breathing
Bleeding from orifices
Call 999/112
Treat casualty for shock
Treatment
Release casualty ASAP
Call 999/112
Control any bleeds/injuries
Treat for shock
Monitor airways and breathing
Less than 15 mins
More than 15 mins
Do not release casualty
Call 999/112
Monitor airways and breathing
Poisons
Poisons can enter the
body in 4 ways:
Signs and Symptoms
Vomiting or Retching
Abdominal Pains
Headache
Cyanosis
Confusion or hallucination
Burns around entry area
Unconsciousness or fitting
Breathing problems
Look for clues such as:
Containers or Bottles
Tablets or Drugs
Syringe or Drug Taking Equipment
Smell on Breath
Treatment
Don't endanger yourself
Dilute or wash away
Call 999/112
Prepare for Resuscitation
Call 999/112
Prepare for Resuscitation
A poison can either be:
Burns and Scalds
S

ize
ause
ge
ocation
c

a

l

D

epth
Depths of Burns
Superficial
Intermediate
Full
Thickness
Dry Heat
Chemical
Wet Heat
Electrical
Causes of Burns
and Treatment
Radiation
Never:
Burst blisters
Touch the burn
Apply lotions, ointments or fats
Apply Adhesive tape or dressings
Remove clothing that has stuck to the burn
Skeletal
System
Fractures and
Dislocations
Causes

Sprains and Strains
Head & Spinal Injuries
Page 12
Direct Force
Indirect Force
Twisting Movement
Violent Movement
Pathological
Types
Closed
Open
Complicated
Greenstick
Signs and Symptoms

P
Treatment
L
U
S
D
I
C
T
- Pain
- Loss of power
- Unnatural movement
- Swelling or bruising
- Deformity
- Irregularity
- Crepitus
- Tenderness
Causes
Signs and Symptoms
F
A
S
T
Treatment
Maintain Airway and Breathing
Call 999/112
Place unconscious casualty in recovery position
Lay conscious casualty down with head and shoulders raised
Reassure casualty - monitor and record
Stroke
- Facial Weakness
- Arm Weakness
- Speech Problems
- Time to call 999/112
Page 13
Page 36 onwards
Call 999/112
Don't let the casualty eat or drink
Reassure the casualty
Immobilise the injury
Do not move the casualty?
Tendons bind
muscles to bone
Skeletal
muscle
Ligaments bind
bone to bone
Strain = Muscle or Tendon
Sprain = Ligament
Treatment
R
I
C
E
- Rest
- Ice
- Compression
- Elevation
If in doubt, send for an X-ray
Concussion
Compression
Fractured
Treatment of serious head injury
Call 999/112
Maintain and monitor airway and breathing
Control any bleeding
Treat other injuries
Spinal Injury Signs and Symptoms
Pain/tenderness in neck or back
Signs of fracture in neck or back
Loss of control of limbs below injury
Loss of feeling in limbs
Strange sensations in limbs
Breathing difficulties
Incontinence
Body Temperature
ºC
Normal Body Temp - 37.5ºC
Mild Hypothermia - 35ºC
Severe Hypothermia 31.5ºC
Heat Exhaustion - 38ºC+
Heat Stroke - 40ºC+
Death - 26ºC
Hypothermia
Heat Exhaustion
Heat Stroke
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Severe confusion
Flushed, hot, dry skin
Strong fast pulse
Throbbing headache
Possibility of seizures
Reduction in levels of response
Move casualty to shaded spot
Call 999/112
Cool casualty rapidly
Hypothalamus
Confusion, dizziness
Pale, sweaty skin
Fast, weak pulse and breathing
Cramps in limbs and abdomen
May 'feel cold' but hot to touch
Loss of appetite
Move the casualty to cool spot
Remove excessive clothing
Help casualty re-hydrate
Monitor levels of response
Pale skin, cold to touch
Shivering then muscle stiffness
Slowing of body's functions
Lethargy, confusion
Lowered levels of response
Unconscious
Conscious
Check airway and breathing
Call 999/112
Gently place in recovery position
Insulate under and around casualty
Seek shelter and remove wet clothing
Insulate casualty
Give casualty warm drinks and high energy food
Ensure there is no underlying issue
Other Serious Conditions
page 46 onwards
Diabetes
Low
Normal
High
8
Blood Sugar Level
4
0
40
Hyperglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia
Signs and symptoms
Slow onset
Drowsy lethargic
Dry and warm skin
Excessive urination
Thirsty and/or hungry
Fruity odour on breath
Treatment
Arrange for casualty to see doctor
Signs and symptoms
Fast onset
Weakness, confused
Slurred speech
Lack of coordination
Bizarre behaviour
Pale sweaty skin
Treatment
Give casualty sugary drink/food
Stay with casualty until fully alert
Consider other causes
Advise casualty to see doctor
Epilepsy & Seizures
Partial &
Absence Seizures
Signs and Symptoms
Day Dreaming
Jerking or Twitching
Pick at Clothes
Smack Lips
Swallow
Wander Around


Treatment
Guide away from danger
Sit or lie Casualty down
Be calm and reassuring
Generalised Seizures
Signs and Symptoms
Aura
Tonic Phase
Clonic Phase
Recovery Phase


Treatment
Protect the head
Loosen any tight clothing
Move anything that may
cause harm
Take note of time and
duration
Call 999/112 if...
Seizure lasts more than 5 mins
Levels of response don't improve after seizure (5 mins)
casualty has second seizure
If it's the casualty's first seizure
Last 2 mins longer than is 'normal'
D
R
A
B
C
D
DANGER
RESPONSE
AIRWAY
BREATHING
CPR
Defibrillation
Chemicals
- Sudden numbness
- Loss of balance/co-ordination
- Sudden severe headache
- Sudden confusion
- Sight problems
- Unequal pupil size
Angina
Heart
Attack
Angina
Heart Attack
Vice-like pain in chest

Central chest, can radiate

Usually 3-8 minutes

Pale, sweaty

Variable, irregular

Shortness of breath,
weakness, anxiety
Rest, reduce stress, take
GTN medication
Sudden, usually during exertion,
stress or extreme weather
Vice-like pain in chest

Central chest, can radiate

Usually longer than 30 minutes

Pale, grey, profusely sweaty

Variable, irregular

Shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, sense of "impending doom"
GTN medication may give
partial or no relief
Sudden, can occur at rest
Skin

Pulse

Other Signs/Symptoms

Factors Giving Relief
Causes
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment
Loss of body fluids:
External bleeding
Internal bleeding
Burns
Vomiting or diarrhoea
Excessive sweating
As the condition worsens:
Fast shallow breathing
Rapid, weak pulse
Cyanosis
Nausea, vomiting
Dizziness, weakness
Sweating
Treat the cause
Lay casualty down and raise legs
Call 999
Keep the casualty warm
Do not allow the casualty to eat,
drink or smoke
Loosen tight clothing
Monitor vital signs
Prepare for CPR
Hypo
vol
aemic
Shock
Initially:
Rise in pulse rate
Pale clammy skin
As the brain suffers a lack of oxygen:
Deep, sighing breaths
Confusion, anxiety
Unconsciousness
Any questions?
Call 999/112 if:
You suspect heart attack
The casualty is not diagnosed with angina
Angina symptoms are different/worse than normal
Angina is not relieved after 15 minutes
Angina has come on during rest/sleep
You are in any doubt
D

Introductions
Health & Safety
Fire Procedures
Course Timings
Toilets
Smoking Area
Mobile Phones
Refreshments
Role Play
Physical Contact
Our Equipment
Qualification
Full transcript