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Middle East Timeline 600-1759 A.D.
Transcript of Middle East Timeline 600-1759 A.D.
632 AD: Muhammad died and Abbu Bakr became caliph.
633-642: Arabs lead campaigns into Syria, Judea, Egypt, and Persia.
(What 8) Schism In 661 AD, Islam split into two distinct sects the Shiite and the Sunni. The schism was caused by the lack of agreement on who should inherit the control of the Umma, or the Muslim community. The Sunni believed that it should be whoever is most qualified to lead the Muslim people, while the Shiites believed the most direct descendant of Muhammad should lead the umma.(What 9) Expansion Military Wall mosaic of the Great Mosque in Damascus built after the Arab conquest of the city in 634 (Byzantinist) The Arabs were experienced warriors even before Islam. They fought amongst themselves before they were united under Islam. After Islam took hold in Arabia, peace made the people of the peninsula restless and they exploded out into their neighbors. Their conquest was made easy by the weakness of their enemies who had been fighting each other for centuries (What 32). Mosaic from the audience hall of Khirbet Al-Mafjar (Cloud). Floor mosaics were made of colored fragments of stone or marble (Archnet). Wherever the Arabs went, they spread their new faith. Islam was spread through trade, and through missionaries who brought conquered peoples into the faith. The government also contributed by levying taxes on people who were not Muslim. This tax policy made the government and the Arab aristocrats less inclined to convert captured peoples, as it would reduce their income. Missionaries, however, spread Islam to the areas around and in the Middle East. The greatest asset to the Expansion of Islam was trade. Traders and merchants spread Islam and the language of Islam from Spain in the West to India, and the Indies in the East. Conversion Plaque with King on Horseback, probably Chal Tarkhan-Ishqabad (LACMA) first half of the eighth century. This plaque was molded in relief, a style of Islamic art (LACMA). A depiction of Richard and Saladin,
1250-1260 (London). Arab V.S Arab 624: Muhammad defeated the army of Mecca at Abdr
627: Muhammad defeated Abu Safyan, who was besieging Medina
629: After Muslim pilgrims were attacked, Muhammad prepared to attack Mecca
630: Muhammad surrounded Mecca. Mecca surrendered offering little resistance
630: Muhammad made Mecca the new religious center of Islam
632-634: Tribal rebellions result from the death of Muhammad
634: Abu Bakr reunites the Arabs under Islamic rule
(What 10) Breakout from Arabia 633: Muslims completed their conquest of Mesopotamia
633: Muslims also completed their campaign in and Iraq
634: Muslims forces defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadayn
635: Muslims began their campaigns in Persia and Syria
635: Muslims took Damascus from the Byzantine
636: Muslim armies defeated the Sassanian near Hira. This victory secured the Tigris and western Iraq
637: Muslims secure Jerusalem
(What 11) The Road to Empire 639-642: Muslims campaigned in Egypt to expand Islam
641: Muslim merchants, and missionaries entered Egypt
641: Catholic bishops an the Archbishop invited Muslims to help free Egypt from Byzantines
641: Muslims began expansion into Central Asia
644: Caliph Uthman began to invade North Africa
654: Byzantines lost Cyprus to Muslim forces
655: Muslims gained control of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Battle of the Masts
661: Umayyads began to gain control of the Umma
667: Arabs secured Chalcedon
668: Arab armies besieged Constantinople
669: All of North Africa fell to Islamic invasions
672: Byzantines lost Rhodes to Arab conquest
677: Muslim fleet is destroyed by Greek Fire
711: Muslim armies entered India, and Spain and began their conquest of these lands
732: Muslim forces are stopped by Charles Martel, no further conquest into Western Europe
(What 13-16 The Crusades During the Crusades, Christian Europe sent large armies into the Middle East to reclaim the holy land. These invasions were successes at first, and several principalities were established by Christians to maintain Christian control in the region. The early successes of the Crusades were also used by the Byzantines who annexed territory in Anatolia that they had lost to the Seljuk Turks. Later Crusades became less driven by religion and more focused on power and wealth. These later Crusades also never matched the impact of the first three. Despite their efforts, Christian armies were eventually defeated and Muslims regained control of the Middle East. The First Crusade 1071-1085: Seljuk Turks began to conquer Syria and Palestine
1095: Pope Urban II orders the first Crusade
1097: Crusaders besiege Nicacea and defeat the Turks in the Battle of Dorylaeum
1098: Crusaders take the Antioch
1099: Crusaders capture Jerusalem
(What 16) The Second Crusade 1144: The County of Edessa fell to Muslim forces
1144:The Second Crusade was launched. It was led by the Holy Roman Empire, and The French as a response to the fall of Edessa
1145: Pope calls the French to lead a second crusade
1148: Crusaders attacked Damascus but their attempts to take the city were thwarted by a lack of food, water, and the attacks from the city's defenders
1148: Rivalry between the French and Germans are so bad that the Crusade was ended in failure.
(What 17-18) The Third Crusade 1187: Saladin, sultan of Egypt, takes the city of Jerusalem form the Christians who held it
1189: The Third Crusade was launched in response to Saladin taking Jerusalem
1189: Frederick I drowned in Anatolia. His death caused chaos in the ranks of his Holy Roman Army
1190: Kings Richard and Philip began to move towards the Holy Land for the Crusade
1191: The city of Acre surrendered to the combined Crusader armies
1191: Richard defeated Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf
1191-1192: Richard and his army march on Jerusalem twice, but turn back before reaching the city
1192: Richard leaves the Holy Land
1193: Saladin dies in Damascus
(What 18-19) Ottoman Empire 1281- Foundation of Ottoman empire in Anatolia
1350s- Ottomans advanced across Bosporus straits into Europe, bypassing Constantinople. Conquered much of Balkans.
1450s- Large-scale recruitment of Janissaries, an Ottoman infantry division begins.
1453- Army of Mehmed II, "The Conqueror," numbering well over 100,000, captured and looted city of Constantinople.
1514- Ottomans defeat Safavids at Chaldiran.
1517- Ottomans gain territories in Syria and Egypt.
1520-1566- Rule of Suleyman the Magnificent.
1529- First Ottoman siege of Vienna, capital of the Austrian Habsburg Dynasty.
1683- Last Ottoman siege of Vienna. Far less of a threat to Vienna than first siege.
(Stearns 469-477) Safavid Empire 1450s- Shi'a influences enter teachings of Safavids (Stearns 470).
1501- Safavid conquest of Persia begins. Isma'il conquered city of Tabriz
1510- End of Safavid conquest of Persia.
1514- Defeated by Ottomans at Chaldiran.
1587-1629- Rule of Abbas the Great. He extended the Safavid domain to its greatest extent. His capital was at Isfahan.
1722- Isfahan besieged by Afghani tribes. The city fell, and Safavid power came to an end.
1736- Nadir Khan Afshar tries to restore the Safavid Dynasty, but failed.