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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Causes of industrial revolution:
During the revolution the income gap between the working class and the upper class was always getting wider because with the idea of free market people in the upper class could lower or increase the wags as much as they wanted and the workers took the consequences of working long hours on end just to get the minimum pay at couldn't even meet their cost of living in the society at the time.
for the workers the standard of living was set at a very low rate, most workers couldn't even afford food let alone shelter to live in. some where on the streets others were sleeping on the floors of factories and in abandoned buildings.
Degree of change from Classical to Modern liberalism
Income gap and standard of living during the industrial revolution:
Many authors and photographers used the media to help raise awareness of the struggles of the lower class.
wrote the" How the other half lives" which he tried to inform the upper class on the horrors of tenement life in New York
: his work " The Condition of the Working Class in England" explained the dire conditions of the workers during the industrial revolution, and also co- authored the" Communist Manifesto" with Karl Marx.
: he lived through the industrial revolution, worked in hard conditions but became a parliamentary journalist in 1833 and toured both Europe and the United States speaking against slavery and social injustices.
How was attention brought to the public regarding the struggles of the working class?
Through what method was government intervention introduced into society in the 20th century?
By Nouran Youssef
and Cloey Starrett
Before the industrial revolution, people used to depend on home made material. Farmers used to live on the country side.
Most products were made at home, like (clothing, furniture, hardware, jewelry, etc.) and were even exchanged for food.
In the late 1700's, the first steam engine was created causing the outburst of the idea of factories and manufacturing to business owners.
What Class Systems Were Born Out Of The Industrial Revolution?
New economic systems created as a result of the industrial revolution:
The Industrial Revolution caused a dramatic change in how individuals lived. Two classes that benefited the most from the revolution, were the "upper", and "middle" classes. Both of these classes had wealth and success, plus prices of goods went down even cheaper so everyone could purchase them.
As the Industrial Revolution came along, the middle class (ex: business men) achieved more power.
The "upper" and "middle" classes had better shelter, health care and food, which caused less spread of disease between the individuals and their life expectancy was longer.
Although, there was one class that was not better off. The "working" class, normally worked extremely long and brutal hours in factories. They normally worked five to seven days a week, and worked for relatively low wages. Plus, as young as fifteen year old's worked in the factories.
It is mostly known that as a result of the industrial revolution new economic systems were developed such as Capitalism.
Capitalism is the economic system where the means of production are privately owned and used to make profit.
Most revolutions were fought for the peoples freedom, during the industrial revolution people had to fight for better working conditions while business owners fought for the freedom to have control of their workers and businesses, hence the development of the idea of " Classical liberalism"
During the revolution the system of free market was also developed, people advocated for less government involvement and more freedom of what they can do with the economy.
The factories were very unsanitary, which quite often led to the quick spreading of disease.
As people hoped to obtain employment, they tried their best to live as close as they could to the factories, which was not good for their health. Factories produced a lot of carbon dioxide.
Define Captains of Industry and Robber Barons
"How the other half lived"
It was written by Jacob A. Riis, describing how the other half of society lived or " the working class".
He wrote it to let the upper class know about the horrors of tenement life of the lower class in New York.
In the book Riis sates "one half of the world does not know how the other half lives." That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles, and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. "
In the Industrial revolution, a captain of industry was a business leader whose means of collecting a personal fortune, contributed positively to the country in some way.
For example, Thomas Edison was considered a Captain of Industry. He created great innovations such as the electric light bulb and the phonograph. His inventions helped improve the daily life of individuals and did not ask for much personal benefit.
"Robber baron" was a term used in social criticism and applied to some wealthy and powerful 19th-century American businessmen or the "middle" class.
They were accused of eliminating competition through their prices, then over charging when they received monopoly.
John Jacob Astor is an example of a robber baron. He entered the fur trade and built a large monopoly.
Child Labour and The Main Issues that Caused This To Be An Issue Of Importance In Society
During he industrial revolution workers were not satisfied with the quality of the environment they had to work in. the factories had taken over manufacturing products which lead people to move to the urban life in order to work in factories where they earned less than they deserved.
Labour unions arose helped spread the balance of power more evenly so that workers could bargain for more rights.
Examples of some labour unions at the time are: the National labour union, the order of the Knights St. Crispin, American federation of Labour
Child labour is the use of children in an industry or business, especially when illegal or considered inhumane.
Children as young as six years were working very long shifts (up to 19 hours a day) for little to no pay and minimal breaks.
Children's treatment in factories was often quite cruel, and their safety was usually neglected. The people the children served, often verbally and physically abused them, and did not care about their safety in the slightest.
During the Industrial Revolution, there were many people that wanted at least the conditions of the children's work, to be improved.
The first step to improving conditions was in 1833 with the Factory Act passed. This act limited the length of the shifts for each age group. Children that were 9 to 13 years old were only allowed to work up to 8 hours a day. Children 14 to 18 years old could not work more than 12 hours a day. Finally, children under 9 were not allowed to work at all.
During the industrial revolution the idea of woman being rated as lower than men in the society was starting to be more noticeable, as woman were hired to work in the factories and in labour in general.
The first wave of feminism started in the early 1900's, lead by Nillie McClung. She as a Manitoba reformer, defended the majority for the wartime elections act in 1902. The act stated that all wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters of servicemen were allowed to vote, but was not permitted to anyone who had immigrated to Canada after 1902.
The movements goals were simple: let woman have control over their own lives, have the freedom to vote and speak their mind, and the reconsideration of their roles in society. After the protesting, they had achieved gaining the right to vote, and the reconsideration of women's roles in society, and where they stand in wages and working rights in general.
What were the factory acts and how did they create change, if any?
In 1833, the Factory Act was passed by parliament.
The act stated that now, children in specific age groups had a limit on how many hours they were allowed to work per day at a factory.
Children under 9 were now not allowed to work at all.
Plus, children had to now attend school, for no less than two hours a day.
The act also stated that the government would appoint officials in each country, to make sure the act was carried out and complied with.
Child labour started from the Industrial Revolution and is still here today.
This made the children's lives better, because their work environments were a lot more safer.
Rights developed in response to classical liberalism?
How was the protection of Human
Winnipeg General Strike: Causes and Effects
The cost of living rose by 64 per cent around 1913.
Canadians were then angry, and wanted higher wages, to pay for their new cost of living.
On May 1st 1919, Winnipeg's building and metal workers went on strike, for higher wages.
Two weeks later, the Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council, appealed for a general strike to support the metal workers.
People then, started to walk out. By 11 a.m., 30,000 union and non-union workers had walked off the job.
Elevators shut down, trams stopped, postal and telephone communications came to a halt, and nothing moved without approval from the strike committee.
Winnipeg's business leaders then turned to the federal government for help.
Ottawa ordered the employees to return to work right away, or face being dismissed.
Believing that immigrants were behind the strike, the Canadian government amended the Immigration Act so British-born immigrants could be deported.
Classical Liberalism to Modern Liberalism
During the industrial revolution they followed the idea of classical liberalism where their main focus was the individuals liberty and the values of competition and self interest were the main ideas that controlled the economy and society at the time.
Over the years the conflict between working class and the upper class had caused people to riot for change, more government control over the economy and less privately owned businesses where the workers welfare was the last thing on the the employers minds.
When modern liberalism came into play most of policies of liberalism stayed in tact( focusing on the individuals rights more than the collectives) but it had also changed from extreme individualism and more of having your rights met without feeling controlled by the government in every act you did.
The reason for the change was that people still had the idea of individualism strongly as their ideology at the time but with the way the standard of living was at the time they wanted change, more basic human rights to be met and spread of equality rather than a class based society.
The government started to intervene through the economic system in order to help with the growth of the nationwide movement of citizens to support economic reforms.
Breaking up monopolies and using a new banking system called " Federal Reserve" which helped regulate the nation's money supply and to place some controls on banking activities.
Many governments also introduced the idea of Socialism where they focused on mixed economies, partial nationalizations and social welfare.
Most of the 19th century was revolved around the idea of capitalism where competition, private ownership and labour was recommended for society to keep going,while also supporting no government intervention. Socialism was the total opposite of capitalism where they believed in class rule, state ownership and and favored cooperation over competition any day.
How Was The Development Of Human Rights An Extension Of Individualism?
During the industrial revolution the standard of living for the working class became more difficult than usual. their basic human rights weren't even being met and society stayed as a class based society, with the struggles between business owners who are looking for profit and working class employees who are looking for their rights to be met as the basis of how everyone lived at the time.
Over the years the government came out with laws and acts that helped the working class with their struggles. For example, there were many Human Rights Movements that were led in order to establish equal treatment of all people. There were also factory acts and the Deceleration of Human Rights.
When the human rights movement was established, the working classes standard of living started to improve. Less working hours, more say in how much they get paid, living expenses were provided for, and social programs were also developed to help improve their quality of life.
During the Industrial Revolution, self interest was a large factor in the development of human rights.
For example, the business owners and/or factory owners just acted upon their instinct of self interest, not treating the workers they employed very well, and not paying them well for their work.
The owners placed profit as more of importance than their workers well being, as the working conditions were far from clean and safe.
Individualist point of views were very common among the business owners (factory owners), as self interest plagued their minds.
Acts and laws were created to direct attention to the working class, and the hardships they had to face in their everyday life, both at work and home (but most of their time was mainly spent at work before the laws came to place).
These acts (like the Factory Act of 1833), regarded the working class as a whole and changed the way workers lived, bringing in more collective and human rights.
This spectrum shows classical liberalism and modern liberalism, and the differences between them all.
This spectrum shows how classical liberalism focused on some of the same ideas of capitalism ( individualist point of view) and when it merged to modern liberalism, it moved to using the collectivists point of views while still using liberalists values.