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Interactive Oral: Chronicle of a Death Foretold

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on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Interactive Oral: Chronicle of a Death Foretold

VOLUNTEER?
Interactive Oral:
Chronicle of a Death Foretold

Lifestyle
Social Culture
Religion
Historic & Geographic
Context for Colombian Culture


Gender Hierarchy
Family
--- Family is a wide circle of kinship and several general.
--- Sunday is family day
--- "Family loyalty"
-Family-run businesses
--- Family ties are often broken in lower-class families
Male and Female Roles
Compadrazgo
--- Godparents
--- Very important in Colombian culture
--- May have several sets chosen at different points of life
--- Godparents accept serious responsibilities for child,
child greatly respects his or her Godparents
Established the Catholic Church as the national religion.
Male:
- Machismo: Hispanic
- Strong, respected, protective, capable of providing for
family

Women:
- Dress well, stay educated on fashion
- Feminine image is prevalent (City Attraction)
Roles in
the Family
Male:
- Leader of the family; final decision
Female:
- Cook, clean, take care of children
- Provide social and moral instruction to children
Hierarchy Status
Rich People
- Richer people go to private school for education,
called colegios ("co-LAY-he-os")
- Higher and middle class less aggressive (gentleman)
- More educated overall
- Connections to high places from their parents
Lower class:
- Everyone receives basic education, called
escuelas

("es-coo-AY-las")
- Some children aren't sent to school because they're poor. The money they would make working is needed at home.
- Ultimately higher status than women
- Be a good hostess and mother
- White skin associated with Spanish heritage, and of higher status
Cont.
- Mulatto girls
Magic Realism and Superstition
--- developed in the 1920's
--- magical elements are blended into a realistic atmosphere in order to access a deeper understanding of reality
--- Colombians believe very strongly in this
- Grandmother
Example of Machismo
Colombian Schools
Honor and Purity
--- Honor is a very important moral trait
--- Without honor is an outcast to the community and to the culture
--- Honor is highly respected
--- Purity- Women are only accepted in a marriage when they are virgins, while this does not matter for men
--- Marquez shows this belief through Bayardo returning Angela once he found out she was not a virgin
How do time and place matter?
What aspects are interesting to the work?
What is easy and what is difficult to understand?
Economic Context
Author was raised in poverty
Grew up with grandparents, as parents were too poor (very common)
What connections did you find between issues in the work and your own culture and experience?
Geographical Components
The novel takes place in the town of Sucre, where the author was raised by his grandparents, and his friend was murdered
Arabian Culture in Colombia
Arabs were oppressed in the Ottoman empire; this lead to immigration during the early 1900's
War / Unrest
COLOMBIA
"Two of the teacher’s brothers had pursued Cayetano when he tried to take refuge in his house, but Dona Julieta had hurried to lock the street door because she believed that her son was already in his bedroom. And so he was the one who could not come in, and they stabbed him to death against the locked door."
Idea came from the actual murder of Marquez's friend, Cayetano Gentile.
"My immediate reaction was a reporter’s. It seemed to me that the subject was eternal and I began to take statements from witnesses."
Marquez was a journalist
"Even back then we Colombians killed one another for any reason at all, and at times we invented one, but crimes of passion were reserved as luxuries for the rich in the cities."
Colombia did not know peace
"I feel that all my writing has been about the experiences of the time I spent with my grandparents."
Grandparents Influenced Author
Colombian Civil War (Thousand Days' War)
Liberals Vs. Conservatives
Bayardo's Father was a Civil War Hero
Author's Grandfather was a war veteran (Colonel) of the Thousand Days' War
War Resulted in over a hundred thousand deaths
1948-1966 "La violencia" - War named "The Violence"
War claimed the lives of over 200,000 people
The town of Sucre is located near a river, which connects to the Caribbean
Another wave of Arabs came particularly during the 1940's for trade
"By the time Ibrahim Nasar arrived with the last Arabs at the end of the civil wars, seagoing ships no longer came there because of shifts in the river."
Arabians lost their cultural ties - conforming with the culture of the Spanish (strict spanish catholic church)
"Those [arabs] in the third [generation], with the exception of Santiago Nasar, listened to their parents in Arabic and answered them in Spanish."
Non-Colombian individuals were often more wealthy.
There were developed classes within Colombia, strong distinction between the rich and poor.
Author's Personal Connection
Colombia is tropical; weather is hot and humid. Agriculture includes coffee & bananas (great location for trade and immigration)
"They were clannish, hardworking, and catholic."
"From his father, Ibrahim Nasar, he learned his love of firearms, horses, and falconry, as well as the qualities of valor and prudence."
"What interested me was no longer the crime itself but the literary theme of collective responsibility."
"We'd been at Maria Alejandrina Cervantes's
until after three. She sent the musicians away so that her pleasurable mulatto girls
could go to bed by themselves,"(Marquez 64).
Common Religions in Colombia

Roman Catholic: 90%

Protestant, Jewish,
Muslim, Morman: 9%

Indigenous religions: 1%
Catholicism in Colombia
Practicing Religion (Catholicism, Christianity)

Remaining Pure Before Marriage

Honor, Loyalty, Justice

Ceremonies
The Constitution of 1886

The Concordat of 1973


The Constitution of 1991
- Before 1933 women in Colombia were only allowed schooling until they reached middle school level education.
Concordat with the Vatican, which gave the Church a diminished role in state affairs. "Roman Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of Colombians."
"I knew what they were up to...and I didn't
only agree, I never would have married him if he hadn't done what a man should do,"
(Marquez 62).
The Importance of Machismo in Colombian Society
Example of Gender Roles
The girls had been reared to get married. They knew how to do screen embroidery, sew by machine, weave bone lace, wash and iron, make artificial flowers and fancy candy, and write engagement announcements. …My mother thought there were no better-reared daughters. ‘They’re perfect,’ she was frequently heard to say. ‘Any man will be happy with them because they’ve been raised to suffer,’” (Marquez 31).
Invokes God in its preamble, but does not establish Catholicism as the official religion of the state and guarantees the separation of church and state.
Catholic Beliefs and Practices
Sacraments
Seasons of the Church
Christian beliefs
Hierarchy
Sacraments
--- Example
- "'I thought they'd already killed him,' she told me, 'because I saw the knives in the light from the street lamp and it looked to me like they were dripping blood'" (62).
Baptism, Reconciliation, Eucharist, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick
Christian Beliefs
--- Example
"Santiago Nasar had been named for her and she was his godmother when he was christened, but she was also a blood relative of Pura Vicario, the mother of the returned bride" (22).
God, Jesus, Trinity, Life After Death, the Saints,
The Bible
- Magical realism
- Word order
- Clarity (translated)
- Violence

Hierarchy
Quiz Time
What is the word originating from hispanic culture explaining what a man should be?
Pope, Cardinal, Archbishop, Bishop, Priest, Deacon
Pick a gender and explain their respective role in a family.
Put these qualities in order from most to least important.
1. Aggression
2. Honor
3. Legality
Explain the Colombian education system. (Who receives education, where, etc...)
True or False:
Mulatto women have higher status
than those who have spanish heritage.
Hierarchy Continued
- Older people are perceived as being wise.
They are afforded great respect.
- You will always see the oldest person in a group served their food and drinks first.
- When the man of the family can not or will not make a decision, the elderly are the ones to make it.
- The elderly can over rule the man's decision.

Seasons of the Church
Elderly
Vulgarity and Violence
- There is much poverty in Colombia, where Marquez came from.
- To show the reader the gravity of the situation.
- Colombia has the second highest rate of violence against women, and the third largest number of war
refugees.
"They were sitting down to breakfast when they saw
Santiago Nasar enter, soaked in blood and carrying
the roots of his entrails in his hands," (Marquez 120).

"The knife went through the palm of his right hand and then sank into his side up to the hilt," (Marquez 117).

"it looked like a stigma of the crucified Christ," (Marquez 75).

- Rapes and other sexual crimes are often committed by security forces.
- Usually the only source of income
Connections to the Text
Name Meanings

Religious Figures

Belief in Chastity Before Marriage

Santiago's Death
QUICK
QUIZ!
What did the author find inspiration from for Chronicle of a Death Foretold
A.
The death the his friend
B.

His journalistic background
C.
His Grandparents
D.

All of the Above

Give three mentioned details regarding the geography of Colombia.
What are two reasons Arabs immigrated into Colombia during the 20th century?
What two parties were in major conflict during Thousand Days' War and La Violencia?
True or False?
Social classes in Colombia during the 20th century were not clearly distinguishable.
Arabian Culture in Colombia
Arabs were opressed in the Ottoman Empire; this lead to immigration during the early 1900's
Another wave of Arabs came particularly during the 1940's for trade
"By the time Ibrahim Nasar arrived with the last Arabs at the end of the civil wars, seagoing ships no longer came there because of shifts in the river."
Arabians lost their cultural ties - conforming with the culture of the spanish (Strict spanish catholic church)
"Those [arabs] in the third [generation], with the exception of Santiago Nasar, listened to their parents in Arabic and answered them in Spanish."
Colombia did not know peace
"Even back then we Colombians killed one another for any reason at all, and at times we invented one, but crimes of passion were reserved as luxuries for the rich in the cities."
Colombia Civil War (Thousand Day's War)
Liberals Vs. Conservatives
Bayardo's Father was a civil war hero
Author's Grandfather was a war veteran (Colonel)
War resulted in over 100,000 deaths
1948-1966 La Violencia - War Named "The Violence"
War claimed the lives of over 200,000 people
Family involvement in business exemplifies the importance of what?
What is the traditional Spanish word for Godparents?
Marquez based Santiago's mother off of:
A. His own mother
B. His own sister
C. His grandmother
D. His cousin
True or False?
Without his or her honor one is considered an outcast.
Many literary aspects relate to the culture and religion of Colombia
The Culture stems from a history filled with immigration and war
Many cultural values are related to the presence of Catholicism
Gender roles are very defined, and play a tremendous role in the novel
Questions for the Class
Easy:
- being close with family
- Importance of the female appearance
- Private education for the wealthy
- prevalence of Christianity
Difficult:
- Violence against women
- belief in the superstitious
- Men superior to women
Quiz
Full transcript