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Edexcel A2 Graphics

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Anna Smith

on 2 June 2013

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Transcript of Edexcel A2 Graphics

A2 Graphic Design Edexcel Robots & artificial Intelligence A2 Graphics The 20th Century Systems & Control Industrial Revolution Design Movements Ergonomics Smart Materials Responsibility of Developing countries Biotechnology Environmental Issues Renewable Energy Internet Digital Special Effects Electronic Point of Sale CAD, Virtual Modeling & Rapid Prototyping The reveloution of product design came about for 3 reasons:
Consume deman
-> higher inflations due to changes in quality of life
Education for all
-> womens rights
-> more travel
Technology development
-> better production
-> new material developed The New Industrial Age Key Developments in Technology 1940's -> development of digital computers
1960's -> the silicone chip -> inexpensive, portable computer technology
Laptops & mobile phones -> transformed way of life Computers in Manufacturing CIM - custom industrial software
CAD - computer aided Design
CAM - computer aided manufacture
EPOS - electronic point of sale New Materials that Revolutionized
Product Design Metal alloys
Polymers
Composites Development in Technology New materials developed -> duralumin -> excelent strength to weight ratio
Enhansed properties meant it is used in vehicals & aircrafts -> advanced performance & function Miniruisation
Phones got smallerm but can now do more -> getting bigger -> but thinner
-> components inside getting smaller
-> fit more inside
Big impact on microelectronics
Multifunctional Products -> advanced integrated circuts, battery technology & LEDs Global Marketing

Improvments in technology
-> computers
-> travel
Companies could sell abroad Offshore Manufacturing & Outsourcing Products designed to be sold worldwide
-> needs careful market research
-> more jobs
Enhansed product development
-> skills & resources from other countries can be utilised
Products & services moved to developing countries
-> cheaper production costs 1765 - James Watts invents the steam engine This impacted society:
➰➰➰⚫⚫⚫New factories & new technologies were developed -> more jobs
New towns developed -> people moved to be near to work
The job of the 'designer' was born
Mass production apeared
-> more people could afford new things
-> more accessable products
-> better value products The Teenage Consumer 1940's war stilted design development
1950's economy recovered -> birth of rock & roll -> teens emerged as new consumers
Young people developed an identity-> creating new needs for products
-> portable radios, scooters -> led to specific advertising e.g. to teens The Child Consumer Children desired products too
Some say its immoral
Children became easy targets for companies
Easier to create demand with trends with children Designing products to wear out or become out of date or fashion
Why? -> to stimulate consumer demand The Birth of Trade Unions Industrialization brought uprising about
-> poor conditions
-> low pay
-> child labour
-> pollution Planned Obsolescence Mass Consumer Society Constant demand for 'new & improved'
Don't only change products for 'needs'
Do we need new mobile phones each year?
Do we need flat screens?
We constantly replace working products for newer versions Mass Consumerism 1930's
International commerce & transportation systems developed
People had more money to spend on fun and travel
Demand for design manufacture of transport methods, theaters, luxury hotels started
Higher standard of living Advertising Industry Similar products -> competition -> advertising
Yorkie bar advertised for men
"Gillette the best a man can get" was re branded for women
-> encouraged stereo typical advertising Social Impact of Mass production Unskilled labourers replaced skilled craftsmen
-> low job satisfaction
-> low moral
More jobs + lower cost products
-> more people could access a larger range of products
Low cost -> low quality -> products for low income families
Low skill work -> unpleasent -> low wage Is the science of designing products for human use
Uses human characteristics to design product
Matches product to user
increases comfort & satisfaction scale of production
-> one off - products customized to suit single user
-> mass production - uses data charts for averages to suit as many peopel as possible Anthropometrics
-> a branch of ergonomics that deal with human measurements
Anthropometric Data
-> designers match the measurements of the most users Arts & crafts (1850 - 1900) Fitness for purpose
Honesty in design and making, return to the designer
-> craftsman
-> reaction against industrialisation
Style
-> simplicity
-> natural formes & materials
Designers
-> William Morris Art Nouveau (1890 - 1905) The languid line
The formalization of new aesthetic values for a new urban life style
Style
-> curvy 'wiplash' lines
-> stylized flowers
-> languid feminine form
Designers
-> Charles Rennie Makcintosh Modernism (1900 - 1930) Functionalism
Reducing for to the most essential elements
Style
-> the machine aesthetics using modern materials
-> simple, geometric, clean lines
Designers
-> Marcel Breuer Art Deco (1925 - 1939) Popular modernism
Opulent architectural and decorative arts style
-> reaction to post war austerity
Style
-> zig-zagged geometric fan motifs
-> symmetry & repetition
-> inspiration from ancient Egypt
Designers
-> Eileen Gray Streamlining (1935 - 1955) Consumerism & Style
New prosperity & widen consumer choice
Celebrating speed & efficiency
Style
-> aerodynamics
-> teardrop shapes
-> futuristic inspiration
Designers
-> Raymond Loewry Post Modernism (1975 ->) 'Less is a bore'
Expressive and individual
Style
-> humour and personality
-> retro design
-> deconstructive
Designers
-> Philip Stark Smart Glass When voltage is applied
-> light transmission properties change
-> i.e. changes from transparent to translucent
-> used for windows and skylights Smart Glass Advantages Controls amount of heat passing through a window
-> saving energy cost
Provides shade from harmful UV rays
Provides privacy Smart Glass Disadvantages Expensive to install
Requires constant supply of electricity
Speed control
Only a degree of transparency Shape Memory Alloys Has crystal structure -> can regain origional shape once deformed
Used in glass frames
e.g. memory glasses Shape memory Alloy Advantages Super elasticity
Extreme flexibility -> immediately recovers original shape
Light weight & Durable Shape Memory Alloy Disadvantages Not unbreakable
Expensive Smart Fluids Used in car suspension Systems
-> to dampen ride depending on road conditions
Advantages
-> improves handling
-> better & faster control
Disadvantages
-> more expensive than traditional systems Thermo Chromic Pigments Combined with polymers
Used in 'chameleon' kettles -> change colour with heat Thermochromic Pigment Advantages Immediately visual -> indication of temp
Safety feature
Aesthetic appeal Thermo Chromic Pigment Disadvantages Limited colours
Not possible to engineer accurate temp settings to colour changes Web Pages usually written in language called HTML (hyper text mark-up link)
Unlimited resource bank
Can have emails attached allowing request for information & brochurs E-comerce Describes the ways a company can advertise and sell products & services using the web
Advantages
-> global market
-> information shown on screen
-> easy to update information
-> online shopping
-> improved services to customers
Disadvantages
-> consumers can feel that there is too much advertising
-> consumers may feel vunerable Electronic data interchange Files sent digitally
Eliminates time and cost
Large files can be sent at high speeds using EDI
Very secure
Software and hardware must be compatible Email Advantages
-> quick & easy
-> wide spead usage (anyone with computer & internet)
-> emails can be saved as data record of correspondence
-> documents can be attached, saved and edited
Disadvantages
-> impersonal
-> can be misinterpreted
-> spam => commercial emails
-> privacy & security issues
-> limitations of attachment size
-> viruses CAD Bigger designs can be made at low costs
Increased flexibility
-> greater control over quality
-> designs easily edited & modified
Detailed engeneering drawings can be generat from 3d models
-> provides manufacturing information
Components can be tested on screen
Photorealistic images -> ideal for marketing
Different designs can be added together

Advantages
Can zoom in and out when drawing to scale
Automatic dimensionsm radiim etc.
Can copy, paste , revolve, rotate, mirror objects etc.
Many hatching styles & fonts
Can easily modify existing drawings CAM Uses data from CAD to generate instructions to drive automated machinery
CAD file can be sent accross world to inexpensive manufacture locations Virtual Modeling Can represent accurate 3D Model
Reduces cost & development times
Easily changed without wasting materials
"BI directed parametric association"
-> aids modification => when design is change, linked designs with change automatically
Computer aided engineering (CAE)
-> uses computer simulations to analyse designs e.g. for tolerance checking
-> before making, test programs run to find most efficient cut => less waste
-> less expensive than physical model
->good for complex models => make them more understandable
-> are quick, safe & repeatable Rapid Prototyping RPT Systems
-> allows designers, production directors etc. to review
=>function
=>ease of manufacture
=>ability to market product
within days of initial design
-> shortens design & development cycles
-> enhansing quality & accuracy
-> reducing development costs Rapid manufacture
-> cost effective for low volume products
-> eliminates need for expensive tooling
-> provides custom made components RPT Machines
-> have the ability to produce solid models
-> from a variety of materials
-> by building up layers Rapid Tooling Advantages
-> Allows manufacture of machine tools
-> allows automatic fabrication of production quality Rapid Prototyping Advantages
-> quick
-> improves communication => 3D
-> models can be tested What it it? The collection, monitoring & use of sales information
-> use of barcodes
Barcodes
-> read by laser beam
-> it scans code and reflects it back onto w photoelectric cell
-> the bars are detected because they reflect less light than the background that they are printed on 2D Barcodes Also known as a data matrix code
Is a new level of stock control
Read by specialist machines with vision systems
Allow controlling and tracking of products
Allows tighter quality control Advantages Businesses can supply and deliver products faster
Each product can be electronically identified
Helps with stock management
Allows tracking of products in transit Disadvantages Expensive to install
Require regular maintenance
Technology must be kept up to date
-> to maintain competitive edge
if not frequently updated
-> could suffer from memory loss
-> delayed reaction
-> incorrect sales calculations Blue/Green Screen Enables actors to be imposed onto a computer generated screen
Creates scene that would be impossible/ too dangerous to shoot
Background & foreground shot filmed separately and combines through composting
Steps:
1. background made using CGI
2. actors filmed against green screen
3. film of actors is passed through red filter -> to make it appear black
4. Silhouettes are made from green screen footage
-> one black on white
-> another white on black
5. you then have 4 layers ( CGI background, actors filmed, 2 X silhouettes
Reference points can be added to adjust position of background
Unwanted elements can be remover using 2D painting
Green screen is better than blue coz it emits more light CGI Used to create visual effects
3D modeling
-> process of developing a wire frame
-> this is then rendered with colour, texture & lighting to make
it look more realistic
Motion Capture
-> a performer wears markers to identify different motions
-> computer tracks markers and records position
-> used in Avatar & King Kong
-> used in sports wear to test how they help or restrict movement
Rotoscoping
-> movements are recorded and traced over
-> and redrawn to form animations or cartoons Photoshop Can edit out flaws in photos
-> make models look more attractive in magazines
Make images apear brighter in colour
-> more attrative for promotional purposes Wind Power Advantages:
Flexibility -> large or small scale
Non polluting
Produces low cost power
Could be installed off shore -> minimize visual impact

Disadvantages:
Can only produce small amounts of energy
Not aesthetically pleasing
Noisy & produces vibrations Hydro Power Advantages:
Fuel not required -> no CO2 produced
Highly efficient
High set up costs can be recovered quickly
Large dams can control flooding

Disavntages:
Extreemly expensive to constuct dams and power plants
Rivers may be diverted -> problems for local community
Dam failures -> massivly destructive flooding
Can be desruptive to surround aquatic ecosystems
Causes changes in the down stream river environment
-> erosion of river banks & low dissolved oxyen in water Solar Power Advantages:
Huge amounts of energy available from the sun
Pollution free
Low operating costs
Low maintenance
Competitive for isolated areas
Electricity systems can be self sufficient

Disadvantages:
Relatively expensive set up costs
Not available at night
Energy loss by converting DC current to AC current for use in the national grid Biomass & Biofuels Process:
Plant materials are either incinerated to produce heat and electricity
Or Biogas is produced from anaerobic digestion

Advantages:
Relatively in exexpensive
Large amounts of waste biomass is available from agricultural processing and landfills
Production of biogas reduces the release of methane into the atmosphere
By products -> used as compost and fertiliser

Disadvantages:
Ecological damage -> deforestation & intensive farming practices
Expensive procesing costs
Incineration causes CO2 pollution Advantages of Genetically Modifies Trees Makes trees resistant to disease
-> high yield
-> less waste
-> more high quality
-> lower prices
Removal of lignin
-> recuces production of pulping
Speeds up growth
-> saves time and therefor money
More compacted as grow more straight
New industry
-> more jobs Disadvantages of Genetically modified Trees Public Perception
-> some people don't agrees with intefering with nature
Don't know full impact
-> surrounding wildlife?
-> soil?
Takes more nutrients from soil
-> do we have that water supply?
Unknown long term side effects
Reduction in pulping process
-> loss of jobs Biodegradable Polymers 185,000 tonnes of polystyrene used in UK per year -> most go to landfills
Polystyrene used most by electronic companies for protective packaging
Biosystem
-> alternative to polystyrene
-> made from renewable corn starch
Biopol
-> produced in nature through fermentation by bacteria of sugars & other carbohydrates
-> is stable in humid conditions
-> degrades when exposed to micro organisms
Products that use biodegradable polymers
-> credit cards
-> packaging
-> medical
-> replacment for expanded polystyrene PLA - Polylactic Acid Derived from corn starch
Is totally carbon neutral
Is biodegradable
Conventional plactic packaging
-> uses roughly 200,000 barrels of oil per day in the US
PLAs are heavier that conventional plastics -> more fuel needed to transport Issues include:
-> the depletion of non renewable resources
-> deforestation
-> air pollution
-> waste & refuse disposal Reduce Use less packaging
Make products easier to fix
Use biodegradable materials
Reduce waste
Packaging Waste regulations
-> eliminate or reduce packaging
-> packaging fit for purpose
Redesigning may be required for maximum efficiency Re-use nescafe -> refill pouches
->this will reduce consumption of raw materials
-> and reduce energy required for recycling Recover Products require energy -> so when discarded energy is lost
Waste that can be burnt without pollution can be burnt to generate electricity
-> not as effective as reduction & recycling but better than landfill Recycling Make products from recycled materials
Designers should consider materials that can be recycled after use Case Studies Yelow Pages redesigned pages to fit more information on
-> which cut pages from 23 to 7
-> save them £1.5 million per edition
Coca Cola redesigned can
-> saving £2.3 million per year Reducing your Carbon Footprint Carbon footprint -> the amount of CO2 we emmit individually per year
CO2 -> primarily responsible for global warming -> changes in climate Ways to reduce your Carbon Footprint Dont leave electronics on standby
Walk & cycle not drive
Turn off lights
Use energy saving light bulbs Manufacturers Should evaluate carbon foodprint through LCA
They aim to increase effeciency to reduce wasted energy
manufacturere should also try offset their corbon footprint by:
-> planting trees
-> conservation work
-> etc.
trees consume CO2 and release oxygen -> carbon sinks Deforestation Impact
-> less carbon sinks
-> desruption to wildlife
-> loss of livelyhood
-> climate change
How to prevent it
-> replant trees (triple velvet)
-> reduce consumption through education and advisorymapproaches
-> no longer import from sourses that involve deforestation Global Sustainable Development A Developed Country:
-> high economic growth
-> large amounts of infrastructure
-> high standard of living
-> mass consumerism
-> high demand on raw materials
-> increased pollution

A developing Country:
-> low standard of living
-> low human development index
-> need more energy consumption
-> are exempt from Kyoto Protocol
-> need increased trade to bring investment and build the economy Legislation to support sustainable development UN Earth summet
-> representatives of all nations meet to discuss sustainability
1992 > 172 governments participated issues addresses include:
-> scrutiny of patterns of production
-> alternative sources of energy
-> new reliance on public transport systems
-> the growing scarcity of water

Kyoto Protocal
-> is a protocal to the united nations framwork convention on climate change
-> aimed at fighting global warming
-> aim: to reduce greenhouse gasses by 5% from 1990 - 2012 Non Fossil Fuel Obligation
-> refers to a collection of orders requiring the electricity distrubution
to purchase electricity from nuclear power and renewable energy
Fossil Fuel Levy
-> used to subsidize UK nuclear & renewable power development
UK target -> to half carbon emissions by 2050
Renewable obligation -> 10% minimum of all electricity suppliers must be generated
by renew able energy -> to rise to 15% by 2015 Non Renewable Energy Sources Nuclear Fossil Fuels Process:
A controlled nuclear chain reaction
-> creates heat -> which is used to boil water
-> produces Steam
-> drives a steam turbine
-> generating electricity

Advantages:
Uses uranium -> widely distributed
Heat can also be use to heat power station
Mitigates the green house effect
Future development -> more efficient

Disadvantages:
Unpopular -> media coverage
Problem of storing radioactive waste
Potential for severe radioactive contamination
Nuclear weapons
Mining fir uranium -> pollution and damage to environment Process:
Burning of hydro carbons to produce heat and power

Advantages:
Economies of scale
-> large amounts of electricity
-> low cost energy supply
Very efficient
Power stations can be built anywhere

Disadvantages:
Finite resource
CO2 emited -> global warming
Causes acid rain
Mining for coal -> damages environment & is pollutant
Regional and global conflicts over oil reserves Automation The use of computer systems to control industrial
machinery or processes
-> vastly reduces the need for human operators Robots Used for manufacture
-> automated production
-> assembly tasks
Can be reprogrammed
-> supports flexible production Do the monotonous jobs
High precision
High quality
High productivity -> costs effective
Do not tire -> can work 24/7
Can work with heavy load
-> in situations which may be dangerous for humans
Flexible Advantages Disadvantages Different programming languages
-> not all brands can communicate
-> restricted to but from one company
Do not have human senses
Hard to program for some tasts
Human cannot work with robots for safety reasons
Expensive to set up & maintain Robotics & CNC Robotics have a larger range of capabilities than CNC
Robots can be fitted with:
-> sensory feedback
-> tactile sensors
=> high skilled work Artificial Intelligence A machine that would be able to exhibit human behaviour
Used in voice recognition systems & natural language processing Expert Systems Computers that can process large amounts of info & make decisions
Based on 'logic systems'
-> calculates data to make most sensible decision
Adding voice recognition
-> manufacturers could speak to their machines Autonomous Robots Can feel objects like humans
Degree of freedom/movement
-> human arm = 20 degrees
-> robot arm = 60 degrees Advanced Manufacturing Systems Impact of computers on manufacture
Why used :
-> speed
-> efficiency
-> Quality Quick Response Manufacture (QRM) A change from batch to flow Production
-> responding to consumer demand not planning for expected demand
-> increase flexibility
-> reduce waste Key Concept of QRM Uses
-> total quality management (TQM)
-> just in time (JIT)
-> manufacturing cells - allows easy reallocation of roles
if consumer requirements change Total Quality Management (TQM) All parties are accountable for overall qaulity
Continuous process of reducing errors
Improved customer experience
Ensure employees are well trained Just in Time (JIT) Supply on demand
Begin manufacture after order is placed
Raw materials delivered directly to production line JIT Advantages JIT Disadvantages Saves money on storage
-> no stock piling
Can respond quicker to demand
Reduces waste
More responsibility on teams (in cell production)
-> reduced cost in quality control Pressure to react to demand and change scheduals
High demands -> high pressure
Change do to implementation of QRM
-> change of jobs
-> impact on methods
Forecast could be inaccurate Concurrent Manufacturing Objective -> for designs and process to be right first time
=> quicker release to market
Requires good communication
->to avoid need for change
-> to avoid delays
-> to avoid unnecessary costs e.g. delay costs
Requires computer based systems
-> for data transfers between teams House Quality Matrix Quality Function Deployment Incorporate customer satisfaction into product development
Uses House of Quality Matrix
-> transfers customer requirements into specifications for product
Advantages:
-> reduction in modifications
-> reduced time to market
-> decreased design & manufacturing costs
-> improved quality
-> customer satisfaction Customer requirements -> market survey
Technical Requirements -> specification
Planning matrix -> planning to specification
Interrelationship matrix -> how customer needs & technical requirements go hand in hand
Technical Correlation -> how technical requirements support or hinder each other
Technical Priorities -> quality control Flexible Manufacturing Systems -Iterate systems -> machines are linked by a material
handling system e.g. conveyor system
-Modern FMS use powerful computing capacities
to control & coordinate individual machines
Advantages:
Flexibility -> react to change in production
Increase productivity
Shorter lead time for new products
Lower labour costs
Improved quality ISDN & Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmissions of
-> voice
-> video
-> data
-> other network services
over the traditional circuts (public telephone lines)

It supports data rates of 128kbps
Is an alternative to traditional dial up
It combined services such as internet and telecommunications
High cost -> limited popularity
Now being taken over by faster broadband e.g. DSL Broadband Refers to any type of transmission technique that carries several data channels over a common wire
has minimum data rate of 256kbps (in one direction
Asymetric digital subscriber line
-> most popular
-> a way of sending data along existing telephone lines
-> uses technology that packs more info into the signal
Cable
-> bundle of optical fibres
-> carries more info than a telephone wire over long distances with loosing quality
Wireless
-> connections made by transmitting to a users computer => using radio signals
-> 3G & 4G
-> allows mobile phones and laptops to connect to internet
-> needs reception
Satellite
-> 'one way' provides fast connection in one direction (download only)
-> 'two way' ability to download and send it back but at a slower rate
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