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on 12 December 2014

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Transcript of Rousseau

The First French Empire was founded on May 18, 1804 nearly 5 years after the end of the French Revolution, when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title of emperor. The First French Empire replaced The French Republic and the previous governing body, the French Consulates with an authoritarian leader.

Events leading to the French Empire
First French Empire (1804-1815)
By Eric Wong and Jason Han
The French Revolution
Napoleon overthrew the French Directory, a body of power with 5 members in a coup d'etat in November 9, 1799.

Constitution of the Year VIII is adopted and creates the Consulate, a group of 3 leaders. Napoleon is appointed First Consul and has most of the power in the Consulate.

An agreement called the Concordat is signed on 15 July, 1801 that stated Catholicism as the religion of the majority, and maintained freedom of beliefs. Land claims on the Catholic Church's confiscated land were dismissed.
1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.
2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.
4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.
5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.
6. Law is the expression of the
general will.
Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.
7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.
8. The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense.
9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by law.
10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.
11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.
12. The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be intrusted.
13. A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.
14. All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes.
15. Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.
16. A society in which the observance of the law is not assured,
nor the separation of powers defined
, has no constitution at all.
17. Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it, and then only on condition that the owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified.
Napoleonic Code
End of the Empire
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
The Napoleonic Code was enacted a little before Napoleon was crowned. The code changed the feudal laws from the old regime such as elimination of birth rights, freedom of religion and government positions opened to qualified people.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man is a constitutional document, fundamental to the French Revolution and human rights. It was inspired by the American constitution and directly influenced by Thomas Jefferson, and was fully adopted by France in 26 August 1789. The principles employed in the Declaration come from the philosophical and political concepts from the great thinkers of the Enlightenment, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu. These concepts include individualism, general will, social contract and separation of powers. The document also describes the natural rights of man as the right to have "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression."
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic wars was a series of wars that greatly expanded the French's influence. It extended mainly throughout the years of the First French Empire, it was composed of approximately 60 battles, France only losing 7 of them, mostly near the end of the Empire.
Despite defeating 5 coalitions during the era of the Empire, the Sixth and the Seventh Coalitions ended up defeating the Empire and forcing Napoleon into exile. The Paris Treaty was signed and France's borders reverted to back to their 1792 borders. Louis XVIII became king of France. Napoleon comes back to France to launch a war to bring back France's power, but lost at Waterloo, ultimately ending the Empire when the Second Paris Treat is signed.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born on June 28, 1712 in Geneva to a middle-class family. He was one of the most famous and controversial philosophers of the Enlightenment.

Rousseau's mother died a few days after his birth and his only brother ran away from home. When he was 10 years old, his father was forced to flee Geneva after he trespassed on a wealthy landowner's land. Rousseau was taken in by his uncle and was sent to school with his cousin.

Rousseau was left to himself and he had to work a variety of jobs in order to survive. He published his first work in 1750.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Rousseau strongly believed that humans are naturally and inherently good, and that it is society that corrupts people. In his work, Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, he argued against the advancement of sciences and arts, contradicting some of the views of other philosophers of the Enlightenment. He argued the advancement of knowledge has given the government more power and disregarded individual freedoms. He also argued society became more materialistic, which led to jealousy, hatred and mistrust.

In his other work, The Social Contract, Rousseau states that people can preserve themselves by adhering to a social contract and following the general will. He describes nature as lawless and harsh, that society forms as a result to combat it.

Rousseau also believed that the general will is not always right and also that the government should protect freedom, equality, and justice regardless.

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