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UCD - Sussex perspectives
Transcript of UCD - Sussex perspectives
Interaction of inter- and intra-societal factors generating concrete changes in productive structures.
Development as uneven and combined
Escher, M.C. – Relativity – 1953 – 277 X 292 mm
Development is a matter of perspective
Development for whom?
Felipe Antunes de Oliveira
Lecturer in International Relations
University of Sussex
The task of less developed countries today is in some ways easier than that which faced Europe and the United States as they industrialized in the nineteenth century: they simply have to catch up, rather than forge into unknown territory (Stiglitz 2007, 30).
What is development?
The general conclusion at which I arrived (…) can be summarised as follows. In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. (…) At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production (…). No social formation is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed (…). In broad outline, the Asiatic, ancient, feudal and modern bourgeois modes of production may be designated as epochs marking progress in the economic development of society. The bourgeois relations of production are the last antagonistic form of the social process of production (…) The prehistory of human society accordingly closes with this social formation.(Marx 2010b , 263–64).
Social and economic progress
What is the problem?
- Colonial Mentality
- Top down, North-South approach
- Methodological nationalism
Is it possible to think of International Development in a different way?
Political Economy of Development
- Development as a consequence of division of labour / specialisation
Stages of development
Markets as the main driving force of development
States as the main driving force of development
- Class struggle as the main driving force of development
Trotsky: Uneven and combined development
Modern bourgeois (capitalism)
Age of high mass consumption
Preconditions for take-off
Drive to maturity
End of History
- Absolute Monarchy
- Backward, agrarian society
- Socialist revolution?
Development = Class struggle + Relations between societies
The laws of history have nothing in common with pedantic schematism. Unevenness, the most general law of the historic process, reveals itself most sharply and complexly in the destiny of backward countries. Under the whip of external necessity their backward culture is compelled to make leaps. From the universal law of unevenness thus derives another law which, for the lack of a better name, we may call the law of combined development – by which we mean a drawing together of separate steps, an amalgam of archaic with more contemporary forms. Without this law, to be taken of course in its whole material content, it is impossible to understand the history of Russia, and indeed of any country of the second, third or tenth cultural class. (Trotsky 2008 , 5)
It is possible for the workers to come to power in an economically backward country sooner than in an advanced country. (...) To imagine that the dictatorship of the proletariat is in some way automatically dependent on the technical development and resources of a country is a prejudice of ‘economic’ materialism simplified to absurdity. This point of view has nothing in common with Marxism. (Trotsky, 1986 , 63)
The socialist revolution begins on the national arena, it unfolds on the international arena, and is completed on the world arena. Thus, the socialist revolution (…) attains completion only in the final victory of the new society on our entire planet. The above-outlined sketch of the development of the world revolution eliminates the question of countries that are ‘mature’ or ‘immature’ for socialism in the spirit of that pedantic, lifeless classification given by the present programme of the Comintern. Insofar as capitalism has created a world market, a world division of labour and world productive forces, it has also prepared world economy as a whole for socialist transformation. (Trotsky 1986 , 279)
Social theory of 'the international'
1- Why does the international exist
2- What are the implications of the international
3- How does the international fit into the wider social structure of humanity
Won the 2017 ISA Prize for International Political Sociology
Capitalism itself is the result of uneven and combined development
U&CD and late capitalist development
U&CD and the Iranian Revolution
U&CD and German decision making
- Still Eurocentric
- Dependent on 'development'
Office hours: Mondays 14:00-16:00
Text interpretation challenge 1
Text interpretation challenge 2
‘UCD remains grounded in an ontology of development.’
‘Development is part of the colonial/capitalist political and economic grammar and knowledge production central to and constitutive of cultural encounters as moments of violence in which alternative ontologies (or worlds) are subordinated or destroyed.’
‘The ladder of development may be tipped a bit, but not brought down’ (Blaney and Tickner 2017a, 74).
We commit financing and technical assistance to projects that genuinely improve everyday life, both in developing and emerging countries and in the French overseas provinces.
And Sussex University is at the centre of this new theoretical pespective
Uneven and Combined Development
Classical Political Economy of Development
The Problem of Stagiesm
A defense of U&CD
Two Text Challenges
For those who make up two-thirds of the world’s population today, to think of development – of any kind of development – requires first the perception of themselves as underdeveloped, with the whole burden of connotations that this carries.
(Estava 2010, 3)
Development is the result of the interaction between class struggle and international pressures and opportunities