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Transcript of Technology
EMT and technology
TRIPS and WTO-Trade related Intellectual Property Rights
Article 27.1, WTO members grant patents for all types of inventions in all fields of technology;
Article 7 the objective of the protection and enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights should be to contribute 'to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare.
Article 8 measures 'may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which...adversely affect the international transfer of technology'
Impacts: obstacles in technology transfer between Northern and Southern countries
High royalty and license fees=cost of product import
Technology and weapon
What are institutional conditions for technology transfer globally?
How to make the governance of technology fair and sustainable?
What is the role of national government in technology governance?
Do we need a World Environment Organization as organiser and rule maker?
Technology and the environment
Nuclear energy and proliferation
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), 100 billion Euro investment
Technological innovation at global scale
Implications of technology transfer
Examples of environmentally sound technologies: renewable energy technologies; advanced energy technologies
Ecological Modernisation Theory
Why are clean technologies attached high importance?
How does technological innovation happen? Can this process be completed in market sector alone? What else is needed to promote the wider dissemination of technologies (e.g. solar panels)?
How does technological innovation happen in developing countries ?
EMT (Developed Vs. developing countries)
Barriers and difficulties, claims in environmental agreement; low capacities to acquire high tech
Environmental leapfrogging (Munasinghe, M. 1999)
Geels: Niche-system model assumes transitions to be initiated by technological innovations and present a unilinear and univalent path of development (2004)
Berkout, Smith and Stirling: Not unilinear, non-univalent and non unidimensional (2004)
Technology transfer through market approach
History of the institution
Evaluation: an innovative institution?
Application and implementation
Issues and problems (Fogel, 2004)
Case study: Clean development mechanism
Fair trade Vs free trade
e.g. solar trade dispute: dumping investigation over Chinese photovoltaic products in the EU (after the US in 2011; India joined with the accusation recently)
Impact: trust in climate negotiation; dissemination of technology
Raised environmental standard and regulation
Source: Lee, B. et. al.2009. Who owns our low carbon future?
Chatham house report.
Social and ethical issues
Acceptance of CCS in Germany
Biofuel: products that can be processed into liquid fuels for heating or transport
either transport or heating purposes.
Bioethanol: produced from crops such as sugarcane, corn, beet, wheat and sorghum
Biodisel: from seeds such as rapeseed, sunflower, soy, palm or coconut
What are the key features of the technological innovation of CSS?
What are the implications to global governance? Any institutional designs needed?
Notion of 'technology governance'
Questions related to CSS
Munasinghe, M. 1999. Is environmental degradation an inevitable consequence of economic growth. Ecological Economics 29.