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Classical Greece: Athens, Persian War, and Peloponnesian War

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Denise Ostendorf

on 10 October 2017

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Transcript of Classical Greece: Athens, Persian War, and Peloponnesian War

5.2 Classical Age of Greece
Athens, Persian War, and Peloponnesian War

The Persian Wars
Ionian Greeks asked fellow Greeks for help
Athens sent aid, ships
Persians put down revolt
Revolt made Persian emperor Darius angry enough to seek revenge
Planned to punish Ionians’ allies, especially Athens, by attacking Greek mainland
Causes of the Conflict
Roots of Persian Wars lay in region of Ionia, in what is now Turkey
Ionian city-states founded as Greek colonies, fell under Persian rule, 500s BC
Ionian Greeks unhappy with Persian rule
Wanted independence
Rebelled, 499 BC
In the early 400s BC, the Greek city-states came into conflict with the vast Persian Empire, a larger, stronger opponent.
The Persian Wars

Persians put down revolt
-Darius wanted revenge
- Wanted to Punish Ionians’ allies, especially Athens, by attacking Greek mainland
Causes of the Conflict

Ionian city-states founded as Greek colonies - now ruled by Persia
Ionian Greeks unhappy
Rebelled in 499 BC
Athens sent aid & ships to help

In the early 400s BC, the Greek city-states came into conflict with the vast Persian Empire
First Invasion
Persian Retreat
Warned in advance, Greeks arrived at Marathon, caught Persians unloading ships, charged in phalanx
Persians retreated
Athens wins at Marathon
Athenian messenger ran from Marathon to Athens after battle to announce Greek victory;
Legend inspired modern marathon,
The First Persian Invasion
490 BC, Persian fleet with big force set out for Greece
Came ashore near town of Marathon, not far from Athens
Battle of Marathon Video forward about 3/4
After Thermopylae
Persians marched south to Athens, which the Athenians had left, and burned city;
Persian fleet was defeated at narrow strait of Salamis by Themistolces.

Second Invasion and Aftermath
The Second Persian Invasion
Spartans held off entire Persian army for several days
Persians take back path in mountains & kill Spartans
Spartans bought time for Greeks’ defense
Preparations for a Second Invasion
Faced with invasion, Athenians called on other Greek city-states to help fight off Persians
Athens asked Sparta to help
Had recently built large navy, took charge of Greek fighting ships
Sparta took charge of Greek armies
480 BC, 10 years after first invasion, Xerxes set out for Greece
Hundreds of thousands of soldiers, sailors, animals, weapons, supplies

Darius planned second invasion, but died before invasion launched
Son Xerxes vowed revenge, continued to plan attack on Greece
Spartan education.
Part 2 of Training about half way in
Xerxes motivation and war plans
Continued about 1/2 way in video
The end and the legacy
The Age of Pericles
Patron of the Arts
Commissioned building Parthenon, other monuments
Hired artists, sculptors to decorate them
Wanted Athens to be most glorious city in Greece
Believed it had best government, noblest people, monuments to prove superiority
460s, elected one of Athens’ generals, became Athens’ most influential politician
Great champion of democracy
Introduced payment for those who served in public offices, on juries
Encouraged Athenians to introduce democracy elsewhere
Much of the rebuilding of Athens was due to one man—Pericles, a skilled politician and gifted public speaker.
Sparta head of Peloponnesian League, allied city-states
Formed 500s BC, to provide protection, security for members
Peloponnesian League
The Peloponnesian War

Athens feared military might of another league
Sparta feared loss of trading
431 BC, the two declared war
Lasted many years
Tension Built

Tensions built between Delian, Peloponnesian Leagues

Mutual fear led to war between Athens, Sparta
As the leader of the Delian League, Athens was the richest, mightiest polis in Greece. Being rich and mighty brought many powerful rivals, the greatest of which was Sparta, which wanted to end its dominance.
The Course of War
Plague and Peace
430, 429 BC, plague struck Athens, changed course of war
Pericles, Athens’ leader through beginning of war, among dead
After plague, fighting heated up until truce in 421 BC
Sparta’s Victory
415 BC, war broke out again; Sparta took to sea as well as land, destroyed Athenian fleet; Athens surrendered 404 BC
Peloponnesian War almost destroyed Athens; Sparta also exhausted by war
War in Greece
Initially neither side gained much advantage
Sparta, allies dominated land; Athens, allies dominated sea
Athenians avoided land battles; neither side won more than minor victories
After victory, Sparta’s army tried to act as Greece’s dominant power
Sparta’s wealth, resources badly strained, power worn down
Spartans could not keep control of Greece
City-state of Thebes defeated Sparta, could not maintain control either
Struggle for power led to long cycle of warfare that left all Greece vulnerable to attack
340s BC, Macedonia, Greek-speaking kingdom to north, swept in, took control of all Greece
Cycle of Warfare
How did geography of Greece impact the development of Greek civilizations?
How did the Persian War help unite Greeks ?
Full transcript