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Transcript of Antebellum South
Cavalier Myth: The world of the planter was leisured and genteel Minority owned slaves (25%) and of those 88% had less than 20 slaves
non-slave owners were mostly yeoman farmers Assumptions Reality Economy King Cotton- referred to the southern economy's major staple that started in the 1820's- short-staple cotton Factors that led to the rise in Cotton's Success 1830's Shift in Crops Cotton Became most Successful crop Decline of tobacco in upper south as result of exhausted land rice= required profuse irrigation
sugar= Intensive labor
long-staple cotton=limited region Growth of Text Industry Demand for Cotton Ambitious Planters moved to lower south uncultivated areas Cotton is King!
Invention of Cotton gin-1793 Slave shift from upper to Lower South By the Civil war it represented 2/3 of America's export trades Production rose from 2million pounds to a billion pounds Economic Boom attracted migration and helped build up wealth in the South Earnings paid for more than 60% of imports More on Cotton's Impact on the South The United States was producing over 60% of world's cotton Encouraged capitalization of investments Facilitated territorial expansion Contributed to the national economy by building up domestic capital, attracting foreign investments, contributing to the industrial growth of the north Factors that expanded production Demand from British textile Industry The breeding of superior strains from Mexican Cotton Opening of Western lands The Cotton Industry as Emblematic of Nation's Inequality Southern cotton affects Industrial factories by revealing growth of the working class and poor conditions
Incited unification of the working class which led to protests and celebrations of free labor in the nation White working class Slaves Crop was responsible for continuing institution westward
1830's- South political economy rested on cotton and slaves 1820-1860 Primarily agricultural South Created tensions between North but had a co-dependent relationship as well with Industrial revolution Tensions between North and South Northerners believed South had a weak work-ethic Northerners viewed the southern institution as a threat to social mobility
Southern resentment of their dependency on North for superior transportation How Cotton Unified North and South through Economy Industrial Revolution in north needed cotton so it depended on the the south
South depended on north as well, for purchasing its cotton
cotton enriched nation as a whole by empowering its economy
cotton made nation more appealing to immigrants
Provided jobs in both north and south- planters and the working class Transportation vast majority of Southern imports and exports were routed through New York. North had a substantially higher number of railroads than the South railroad network in the South wasn't fully developed and made industry sustainability impossible White Social Structure Tidewater Aristocrats- 1850's great landowners=first generation Urban Professionals- Southern Lady- The Plain Folks- Poor White Trash- Suitable wives characterized by domestication and subordination to men Professionals such as Lawyers(rare) and artisans that were required for both unskilled and skilled labor Yeoman Farmers Looked down upon by planters and small farmers yet were superior to slaves Aristocratic Planters Were the elect few of the South that portrayed the image of wealth and power
Lived in stately plantation manors with hundreds of slaves that were isolated from others
Many were active in businesses and took part in leisurely activities such as hunting
Private tutors were hired by the wealthiest families to educate their children
boys studied in the fall and winter to allow time for work in the fields during the planting times. The girls studied in the summer to allow time for weaving during the colder months More on the Wealthy Planter Class Followed Code of Chivalry- Honor, Dignity, authority, often settled arguments with duels Southern "Hero," Northern foe and savage- was South Carolina representative Preston Brooks who beat senator Charles Sumner of Mass. with cane for giving a ridiculing speech of one Brook's relatives Viewed as proper under code of chivalry Southern Lady Viewed as ornamental and expected to be subordinate to their husbands Domesticated, defended by men Lived in farms or plantations and were often isolated from the rest of the world Higher birth and mortality rates in South Often had problems with their husbands' infidelity with black women slaves Urban Professionals and Artisans Few cities meant urban professionals such as lawyers were rare Artisans often worked in the plantations along with slaves and indentured servants Slaves were unproductive at home manufacturing so plantations hired servants artisans were employed for both tasks that required skilled and unskilled labor.
A Mississippi planter with 130 slaves paid an artisan $320 for labor and supplies for a forty-one-day job in 1849. The Plain Folk Blacksmiths were high in demand Were modest yeomen farmers that relied on subsistence farming for a living Had few opportunities for education non-slave owning white men depended indirectly on slavery Technology Brought South prosperity and made it dominant in cotton production
Whitney's company was put out of business in 1797 because model was pirated and planters refused to pay price asked for The Cotton Gin - engine invented by Eli Whitney that separated the cotton's seed from fiber Whitney wrote a letter to Jefferson describing the cotton gin
Patented in 1794 The Poor White Trash descended from Celtic criminals deported to America "sallow complexion, awkward manners, and a natural stupidity or dullness of intellect that almost surpasses belief" lived in infertile lands, swamps, and miserable cabins Did not own land, hunted, were common laborers Jobs homes Appearance origin were restricted from social and economic ability lives The Poor White trash cont'd referred to as "crackers" Viewed as inferior to yeoman farmers but superiority to slaves because of color gave them a sense of white pride and support for the institution stereotyped as lanky, bony, with sallow, faded-out colorless of skin and hair had poor sanitation and health, ate clay, often had diseases such as pellagra, hookworm, and malaria viewed with content from rest of the southern population and categorized as lazy, pleasure-seeking, and untrustworthy Slavery 1830s- was primarily located in the south Some masters and slaves genuinely cared for each other, other masters used violence to enforce authority The invention of the cotton gin demanded more slaves in order to produce cotton The institution of slavery isolated the south from the American society They were considered property because they were black,such status of property was enforced by the law Slavery Protected by the law under Slave Codes slavery was allowed in the south and protected such codes restricted slaves from the rights to own property or firearms leaving masters' premises without permission Being out after dark or congregating with each other in places other than churches Slavery More Slaves codes No striking white person or testifying in court whites could not teach blacks to read or write no rights for marriages or being killed slaves would sometimes do a ceremony that involved jumping over a broom to formally declare their marriage Slavery Conditions Women did both chores and men's work There was a High death, poor diet Cotton was a slightly less debilitating crop Household servants were women, their duties easier than labor on field but they had no privacy and there was more punishment as a result of close supervision Southern American slaves had better conditions than Caribbean and South American slaves which endured more arduous work Slavery Conditions Cont'd Plantations largest plantations had several 100's Although cotton was the leading cash crop, slaves also planted rice, tobacco, and sugarcane Most lived and worked on cotton plantations that had 50 or fewer slaves Slavery Labor Planting and harvesting were among the many types of labor needed in plantations and farms They sometimes did artisan work and did work as mechanics, blacksmiths, drivers, carpenters, and took part in other skilled trades Black women did domestic as well such as spinning, weaving, sewing, cooking, and also had to take care of the family Slaves also cleared new land, dug ditches, cut and hauled wood, slaughtered livestock, and made repairs to buildings and tools Slavery House Servants Women provided domestic services for the master's family or the overseer's constantly under the scrutiny of their masters and mistresses, and could be called on for service at any time Had less privacy than field workers Formed more complex relationships with master's family Black and white children were also put in a position to form bonds because plantations were often isolated Slavery Diets Inadequate for the heavy demands of their hard labor Made them vulnerable to bad weather and disease cornbread and pork was usual, sometimes ate boiled bread that was used to feed the cows and pigs Sometimes ate wild species such as raccoon, snapping turtle, deer, squirrel, duck, and rabbit oyster shells, nuts, grapes, blackberries Slavery The Kitchen Cabin Booker T. Washington's experience No floor, walked on the naked soil His mother was a cook, she used an opened fire-place to cook Stored sweet-potatoes for the winter which he sometimes got to enjoy if he got lucky Slaves got their food like scraps and bread and some potatoes, never constant meals Was both their living-place and the kitchen for the plantation Slavery Booker T. Washington's experience Necessity, Theft, and Ambition He remembered his mother waking up the children in the middle of the night to feed them stolen food Justified this theft with what slavery caused on the victims He re-calls watching two white ladies eating ginger cakes and wishing he could have one Slavery Conditions Cont'd Weather and Disease The south's heat and humidity made slaves more vulnerable to disease since they weren't healthy as a cause of malnutrition and daily exploitation rice plantations were especially infested with disease because the long hours spent in water (rice irrigation) attracted mosquitoes child mortality was around 66% and in one case 90% Slavery Slave Trade There was a constant threat towards sale for slaves working on plantations If masters had a financial loss or personal crisis this could cause them to sell slaves slave auctions were held were bidders asked for the highest price which ranged from $500 to $1700 per slave Slaves were transported by trains, boats on rivers, and ocean steamers, sometimes by foot if it was a short distance slave trades separated families and often dehumanized slaves There was a strong desire in the south for allowance to import slaves from other countries Slavery Slave Trade- for plantation slaves Sometimes sold as a form of punishment There was a popular sentiment to keep mothers and children and father together but it wasn't always followed Immediate families were often separated and extended families almost always Slavery slave men were hopeless in protecting their women from these types of abuse Slave Women abuse They had to endure the practice of sexual exploitation no safeguards to protect them from being sexually stalked, harassed, or raped, or to be used as long-term concubines by masters and overseers men with authority took advantage of their situation Slavery Punishment The people in charged of enforcing discipline were the drivers, overseers, and masters The overseers were specifically assigned to directly supervise the slaves Slaves were punished for laziness, tardiness, defying authority, and other things The types of punishment consisted of whipping, torture, mutilation, imprisonment, and being sold Slavery Slave codes and white violence slave codes varied from state to state and were enforced by patrols killing of a slave was never seen as a murder If there was slave rebellion, laws became more strict Patrols infringed on slave gatherings, vigilance committees formed to incite violence against slaves Slavery Urban Areas only 10% of slaves lived in non-rural areas there was more slaves than whites in places like Charleston, SC They could be hired out for a day to do city labor such as domestics slaves could work as blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, bakers, or other tradespeople More opportunities for city slaves than the ones living in plantations, they had more contact with free black people Slavery Plantation slave resistance Most slaves were unhappy, they acted like "sambos" or rebelled sambos-acting as happy or oblivious as master expected The ones that rebelled slowed down their work pace, disabled machinery, feigned sickness, destroyed crops They would break out in arguments with their overseers too They would turn to theft whether it was food or valuables Slavery More slave resistance Learning to read and write- defying the law Burning forests and buildings Killing their masters whether directly with weapons or indirectly with food Some would commit suicide or mutilate themselves so they couldn't work anymore Slavery Runaways thousands ran away even for a few weeks and would hide Some would form communities in isolated places such as swamps, forests or mountains Many emigrated to the north where they could be free Several laws were passed to allow masters to capture their slaves in the north if found Slavery Rebellions- Gabriel Prosser 1800- Prosser Gathered 1000 slaves outside Richmond, Virginia This was the first large-scale slave revolt Bridge leading to Richmond were destroyed in a flood Prosser was captured by the state militia after he was betrayed Him and 35 of his men were hung Slavery Rebellion- Denmark Vesey He was a freed man and carpenter in Charleston, SC Involved 9 thousand slaves in a nearby plantation in 1822 to a massive rebellion Was also betrayed but was the only one to get hung Many of the slaves were artisans that performed various occupations Slavery Rebellion- Nat Turner 1831-Only slave to organize the sustainable rebellion in U.S history killed 70 whites in Southampton County, Virginia. As Turner was being looked for at least a hundred slaves were killed Believed he was following a divine prophecy was found, imprisoned in the Southampton county jail and interviewed by Thomas R. Grey as he waited for his execution Slavery Literature In 1835, a mob in Charleston, SC burned abolitionist literature and expelled anti-slavery writers from the South Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass was published in 1845 which was a memoir of the slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass 1853-first novel by an African American was published by abolitionist and slavery fugitive William Wells Brown, the novel was called"Clotel; or, The President's Daughter," The Liberator was published in 1831 by William Lloyd Garrison on the first issue of an anti-slavery newspaper Slavery The Culture of Slavery Gave slaves a sense of racial pride and unity slaves married, formed families, and worked hard to stay together They developed a strong bond through their share of struggle, they could imitate whites, laugh together, and share stories Formed language,music, and a religion Slavery Language and Music Slaves developed the Pidgin language which was cognate to many African and English words They turned to music for an escape to their harsh reality and served as an outlet of emotions Their music revolved around voices and spontaneous rhythms Used instruments like the banjo and would often make them out of animal parts Slavery Religion Mixed Christian with African religions where they vehemently expressed their believes through prayer and songs church was the only place they were legally allowed to congregate Islam was practiced by some Most rejected the Christianity of their masters which was used to justify slavery Old Testament: African American slaves could relate to Moses and his people as they escaped Egypt to the promised land Still some slaves still met in secret to discuss the new testament where they believed freedom awaited them religion offered many hope and helped them resist the degradation of bondage Slavery Religion cont'd White Society Southern cities homes and buildings: frame or brick structure plantation mansions were designed in neoclassical style with great luxuries to display wealth and taste important cities were Baltimore, Maryland and New Orleans, Louisiana, Charleston, South Carolina and Savannah, Georgia cities were not attractive to residents and grew slowly White Society religion most southerners nominally belonged to the Anglican church It exerted a much smaller influence than the Calvinist church in England Plantation isolation made regular church attendance difficult People had to travel great distances to attend occasional revival meetings which were often enlightening or entertaining the reform of the 2nd Great Awakening started in 1790 White Society White Society Lifestyles small farmers lived hand-to mouth while plantation owners established what resembled an aristocracy wealthy plantation owners adopted styles and manners followed in Europe There was many farmers from Scotch-Irish and German descent that farmed only for self-sustainability and did not own any slaves and used family for labor Daily living Many of the products such as cloth or food needed other than crops grown were also created in plantations Some where bought in the nearest town as imports from Europe or the north Politics Democracy and Reform - Jacksonian Democracy 1828- Jacksonian Democracy began; it was a party of wealth standing but protected the rights of rising to prominence on one's own talents Challenged the power of the eastern elites Andrew Jackson, the President of this democracy, was referred to as King Mob during his Inauguration Accomplishments: changed voting law to allow all adult white males the right to vote and hold private office failed to improve economic quality in America Politics Democracy and Reform - Jacksonian Democracy Male Suffrage- was a demand for a greater democracy and wider range of voting rights Voting before reform favored planters and politicians Women still had no voting rights after reform Dorr Rebellion- activist and lawyer that led "people's party" and expanded male's suffrage although failed to form a new gov. ballots were not private and people would be ridiculed Politics Democracy and Reform- the Whigs The Whigs was a party formed in 1830 by anti-Jacksonians that emerged after his failure of the nullification movement and crushing of the national bank their vision was a strong federal gov., industrialism and commerce, and were cautious about westward expansion and supported substantial merchants and manufacturers of the northeast, the wealthier planters of the south, farmers and the commercial class of the west were evangelical protestants, supported people of wealthy and aristocratic background Politics Democracy and Reform- Democrats was the party of the Jacksonian supporters Jackson's vision: equal protection and benefits to white male citizens, no distinction between class or region Jackson followed the Spoils System which limited permanent officeholders, transformed process of presidential candidates Focus: power from the people not aristocratic political institutions supported by Irish and German Catholics and supported small merchants, working men of the north east, and anti-industrial southern planters Politics Democracy and Reform- South Carolina Nullification Crisis South Carolina was infuriated by the Tariffs of Abominations in 1828 which was causing economic chaos for farmers and debt SC blamed economic problems on the rise of prices for manufactured goods Wanted to secede from the nation Calhoun proposed nullification of the tariff and was declared senator of SC along with governor Hayne Started the Webster-Hayne debate Politics Webster-Hayne Debate & 3 quotes Hayne victimized the south and west of Northeastern tyranny Webster viewed Hayne's comments as a challenge to the integrity of the union to which he responded " Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable!" President Jackson responded to argument with "Our Federal Union- it must be preserved." Calhoun responded to the president with, "the Union-next to our liberty most dear." Politics Indian Removal Act Politics Kitchen Cabinet was Jackson's unofficial circle of allies Secretary of State ,Martin Van Buren, became close to President Jackson Peggy-Eaton affair- caused Calhoun and his wife to refuse to accept Peggy O'Neale into social circle because of political scandal the affair scandal caused Jackson and Van Buren to have dissension with Calhoun Jackson's attitudes towards Native Americans were ones of contempt, during his presidency he ordered the re-location of them into different lands Attitude from the 18th century to the 19th century shifted from one that viewed Native Americans as noble savages to uncivilized savages unworthy of respect Black hawk war in 1831- took place in the Old Northwest between white settlers in Illinois and the Fox Indians leader Black hawk and his followers neglected the validity of agreement to cede tribal lands in Illinois but were defeated by the militia men Native Americans Trails of tears 1,000 Cherokee fled across state line to N.C. During trip the Natives faced unbearable conditions and Emingres perished the "Five Civilized Tribes" were expelled to "Great American desert the "Five Civilized Tribes" were the Cheerokees, Creek, Seminole, Chicksaw, and the Choctaw Native Americans Trail of Tears Seminole wars- guerilla warfare from Natives and slave runaways cost America $20 million and 1500 casualties Results of Indian removal: Indian societies moved East to West Natives ceded 100 million acres and received $68 million and 32 million acres in return Caused relationships between whites and Native Americans to become further distant Politics Jackson and the Bank war Jackson opposed the National bank whose president was Nicholas Biddle Jackson and believers of rapid economic growth supported hard money-backed by gold and silver vs. state bankers which supported soft money-banknotes unsupported by gold and silver Biddle tried to save bank by favoring influential men such as Daniel Webster and henry Clay Jackson's tactic of destroying the national bank was ordering the secretary of state to withdraw all money from national bank and deposit it into state banks Politics Jackson and the Bank War cont'd state banks were called "pet banks" among enemies of the movement to crush the national bank Biddle called in loans and raised interests Results: Bank dies, country loses valuable financial institution, and an unstable banking system begans The End Works Cited
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