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Soviet-Afghan War

Social Studies Presentation
by

Sofia Benito

on 9 June 2013

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Transcript of Soviet-Afghan War

Claire
Julien
Sofia
Timothy Soviet-Afghan War Interest & Value of Afghanistan Strategic Geographic location Road to Soviet Intervention 1980: UN condemned Soviets actions International Response Fighting the War Soviet Withdrawal Soviets agree to leave in 1988
Power vacuum created
Najibullah (communist) in power for 3 more years
Various Mujaheddin groups fight for power (Massouds, Dostums and Taliban etc.)
Kabul falls to Mujaheddin on April 16, 1992 (just one year after USSR falls)
Two years later, the Northern Alliance is formed between the Massouds and Dostums
The Islamic Party of Afghanistan The Rise of the Taliban How was the Soviet-Afghan war shaped by Cold war ideology? Why was the Soviet-Afghan war considered to be the Soviet Union's Vietnam? How have the Afghans felt about being controlled/influenced by western countries? Why has it been so hard for Western countries to control Afghanistan? "Bleeding Wound" - Gorbachev and Chernenko, 1985 (5)
Gorbachev relaxes with media
Cost of war became too excessive
War became a barrier between Soviets and China & Nato
Start pulling out troops in 1986 1989: Soviet Withdrawal American Reaction
(Detente is over) Fall of Shah in Iran
Carter: ‘great threat to world peace’
planned military intervention to resist Soviet incursion into Persian gulf
Blocked Grain delivery
boycott of 1980 Moscow Olympics West European Countries Less Aggressive Third World USSR lost prestige
Islamic countries was virulent- Iraq
Arab States provided support to the Mujahidin- including Osama Bin Laden Pakistan: "Pivotal position" 1982: UN Calls for Soviet
withdrawal General Assembly is against Soviet participation in Afghanistan
Estimated 5 million displaced Afghans due to the occupation
Flee to neighboring countries (Iran and Pakistan) April 1978: Afghanistan's People's Democratic Party seizes power
Renamed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Large amount of refugees
Potential recruits
Base of the anti-PDPA resistance
Threat to Pakistan: face Soviet pressure in the North
Opportunity for Pakistan: by aiding anti-communist resistance, Pro-Pakistani regime could be placed in Kabul Parallel Wars Heavy economic drain
Downfall of their international prestige
Superpowers committed crimes against humanity
Widespread distrust of government Sources 6. Oleg Sarin, Author, Lev Dvoretsky, With, O. L. Sarin, Author Presidio Press (240p) ISBN 978-0-89141-420-9 5. Hughes, Geraint. "The Soviet-Afghan War, 1978-1989: An Overview." Defence Studies Nov. 2008: 326. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 26 May 2013. December 5, 1978 Signing of Friendship Treaty between Soviets and Afghans
More military/economic support 8. "Timeline: Soviet War in Afghanistan." BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2009. Web. 28 May 2013. March 1979 Massive military aid to DRA from USSR
US scales down presence due to kidnapped ambassador December 1979 Soviets order troops to Afghanistan
Move towards Kabul and Herat December 27, 1979 Soviets have killed Amin
Babrak Kamal installed as DRA's new Soviet-backed leader 3. Berger, Adam. "Afghanistan: An Overview." Print. Split Opinions "Silk" trade Route
Great Game Russia- British
Buffer zone between Russian Empire & India After Soviet retirement, split of Mujahideen
Some side with USA due to previous financial support
Others refuse to side with West because of the British occupation US (Western) Support 9/11: "the whole country [was] in mourning" (3)
Desire for modernizing change Anti-Western Opinions Some afraid of US Government's influence on American culture
Think they would do the same in Afghanistan (7)
Puppet Government - lack attention to the Afghan people The Great Game, India, Middle East, Central Asia Invaded and occupied many times; Alexander the Great, Russian Tsars, British Empire, Soviet Union, NATO troops, US.
Very mountainous
Afghans are very familiar with their land
12% of land is arable - the rest is desert or mountainous terrain
21,000 km of road- only 2793 are all-weather routes Constant political, social and religious split Geographical structure/location Tribal characteristic- Social Structure Family before nation
Follow tribe leader instead of country's president Marked the first time, since 1945, that USSR had committed forces outside sphere of influence
Brezhnev Document
Third World Intervention policies Covert Aid Programme to resistance groups (1979) (USA, Britain, France, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan & China) USA provided $2.15 Billion to Mujahidin "Soldiers of god" (1979-1988)
‘Expanded US Aid to Afghan Guerillas’ signed by Reagan in 1985
Sustain the Mujahidin with increased funds and arms
Strategic benefits of embroiling a Cold War adversary
Vengeful desire to make Soviets suffer their own Vietnam (5) What happens when you arm/support extreme Islamic Fundamentalists? 1970: Close to persian gulf oil and Indian ports (1979-1989) “The experience of the past years shows that the Afghan problem cannot be solved by military means only. Within the framework of the old thinking, old approached we are doomed to negative result in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA).” "I died five years ago when I left Kabul. My soul has gone to heaven; this is just my body." “If we’re not careful about who gets weapons, we’ll be cleaning that up for years,’’ the senior White House official told me. “We saw that movie in Afghanistan.” (4) -Colonel Kim Tsagolov (Soviet Army) to Marshal Dmitiri Yazov (Defence Minister), 13 August 1937 (5) -Afghan Mujahidin fighter (5) 2. "Afghan Civil War (1978-present)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 29 May 2013. Web. 02 June 2013. In 1994, the Taliban was created to oppose the change of Afghani culture
Led by Mullah Omar
Initially had about 30 members
Within 6 months, the Taliban grew to almost 15,000
Backed by the Pakistani ISI
Long streak of military successes early on
Taliban approach Kabul
Massouds invite the Taliban to start a democratic system
Taliban refuse the offer 4. Filkins, Dexter. "The Thin red Line." The New Yorker 13 May. 2013. 9. Tribal Afghanistan. Digital image. Global Crisis Atlas. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1996afghan_(1).png https://sites.google.com/site/detailedimagehosting/mujahideen-anti-soviet-art-during-soviet-afghanistan-war 1. Afghanistan's Tribal Complexity: Far More than two sides of the Conflict. The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. January. 2008. https://sites.google.com/site/detailedimagehosting/mujahideen-anti-soviet-art-during-soviet-afghanistan-war 10. Soviet Union Invasion of Afghanistan. YouTube, n.d. Web. (10) 7. Revel, Jean-François. "The Awful Logic Of Genocide." National Review 37.19 (1985): 22. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 15 May 2013. (8) The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 2 years of failed attempts at capturing Kabul - Pakistan increases military aid
- Saudi Arabia begins funding Taliban With the new aid, the Taliban take Kabul on Sept. 27, 1996 PHASE 2 (Soviet-Afghan War) After Soviet Withdrawal 1992-1996 Reasons for Soviet Involvement Greater Communist sphere of influence
Expansion Communism vs. Capitalism Afraid of Communist expansion
Domino Effect Saw American involvement in Middle East as a threat to Soviet presence Reasons for American Involvement Beliefs and Policies A form of Sharia Law Unfair treatment of women Many abuses of Human Rights Massacres Denying food to citizens Very restrictive PHASE 3 On September 9th, 2001, the leader of the Northern Alliance was killed and the civil war came to an end
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