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Brazil in WWII, the Cold War and Beyond

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Alex Sandin

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of Brazil in WWII, the Cold War and Beyond

Brazil in WWII,
the Cold War and Beyond

By Heladio Perez Pesina
and Alex Sandin

Brazil in WWII
Brazil in the Cold War
Brazil after the Cold War
Getulio Vargas
The "Vargas State" (1930-1954)
Vargas took power in a coup after a clear electoral defeat (1930)
Vargas intended to strengthen the government by restoring economic stability in Brazil
Vargas attempted to maintain control of food prices, despite global economic crisis
Emphasized education at all levels, including secondary education
Ended separation of Church and State since 1889 (1931)
Attempted to deal with urban issues, such as labor rights
Currency inflated as the global depression continued (86% by 1940)
Vargas State
and the USA
Brazilian Armed Forces pressed Vargas to industrialize in an attempt to reduce reliance on foreign powers (1940s)
Vargas agreed
The US offered loans, equipment and expertise to help with this process
US motivation was trade agreements
Brazil declared war on Axis Powers and supplied Allies with resources (August 22, 1942)
Vargas sent 25,000 troops to fight in Italy alongside the US Fifth Army in 1944
Politics
Government efforts had little significance within Brazil
Many Brazilians were not satisfied with the government or its actions
Political Parties formed and tried to seize power
One such group was the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB)
The PCB concerned itself with
An opposing group was the Brazilian Integralist Movement (AIB), which modeled itself after Hitler's Nazi Party
The party wore green, military-esque uniforms and armbands bearing the Greek letter Sigma
The Vargas State
Economic Boom
Military Government
Democratic Experiments
Economic Crisis
Nuclear Technology Program
End of Vargas
Vargas made very unpopular actions while in office
The government adopted very strict and semi-fascist policies in the 30s
Civil rights were infringed, press was censored, political parties banned and police were allowed to torture
Eurico Dutra took power in 1949, setting up a joint-US government
"Atoms for Peace"
Program
In 1975, Brazil negotiated with West Germany to trade for materials
associated with building nuclear reactors
Even though Brazil did not weaponize, Brazil did not sign the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
The US was not pleased
Post Cold War
José Sarney was elected as president in 1984 due to his nationalist refusal of IMF aid
Brazil's economy boomed as it rapidly globalized and modernized
Today, Brazil is a developed nation with a powerful industry and many tourist attractions
Post Vargas
Vargas took power again in 1951
A subordinate ordered the assassination of the editor of a
newspaper which published a negative article about Vargas
The assassin missed, killing an air force officer instead
The armed forces demanded Vargas resign
Vargas committed suicide on August 24, 1954
João Goulart became president of Brazil following Vargas's death
Goulart attempted, but failed, to mend Brazil's struggling economy
Brazil's military conspired against Goulart and overthrew him
The military ruled from 1964 to 1984, initially restoring the finances of the nation, but then caused the worst economic crisis in Brazil's history
The cost of eliminating foreign debt and recession was too great, so Brazil sought a more stable form of government
Sources
Fausto, Boris. A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1999. Print.

Williamson, Edwin. The Penguin History of Latin America. London: Allen Lane, 1992. Print.

Gordon, Lincoln. Brazil's Second Chance: En Route Toward the First World. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2001. Print.

Gall, Norman. "Atoms for Brazil, Dangers for All." Portuguese Version. Norman Gall Productions, n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. http://www.normangall.com/brazil_art18eng.htm

Hilton, Stanley E. "The United States, Brazil, and the Cold War, 1945-1960: End
of the Special Relationship." The Journal of American History. Vol. 68.
Organization of American Historians, 1981. 599-624. PDF file.
Full transcript