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Effective Lesson Planning and Design
Transcript of Effective Lesson Planning and Design
Stage 1: Identify learning goals
Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence
Stage 3: Plan learning activities and instruction
Effective Lesson Planning and Design
Effective Lesson Design and Backwards Design
Backwards Design Activity (example)
Some might have a difficult time imaging how the backwards design method of planning lessons can be implemented in a real class. To make it more clear as to how the backwards design approach would translate to an actual lesson plan, here is an example of a lesson for an EFL classroom.
As it can be seen, there is not a whole lot more work involved in doing a backward design lesson plan and a traditional lesson plan. The benefit is that the teacher is allowed to design their own form of assessment and that there is opportunity to reteach materials if needed.
Of course, every teacher is different, but it is important to try different methods of design, teaching and assessment in order to foster to different intelligences and learning styles and create more student centered environments more conducive to learning.
Halverson, E. (2009). The "Backward Design Process". Teaching and Learning Excellence. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved on September 1, 2013 from: https://tle.wisc.edu/solutions/lecturing/%E2%80%9Cbackward-design%E2%80%9D-process.
Newman, R. (2013). Teaching and learning in the 21st century: Connecting the dots. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
What are the most important elements of effective lesson design?
Research as much as possible by using the internet, collaborating with other educators, and reading up on lesson planning.
Why are good learning objectives critical to planning effective instruction?
It is critical to have good learning objectives so that students know what is expected of them, and so that teachers can focus on individual topics rather than just teaching the entire book.
Example of a good learning objective aligned with the Common Core State Standards. What makes this a “good” learning objective?
An example of a good learning objective aligned with the Common Core State Standards which was provided in Newman's text: Teaching and learning in the 21st century: Connecting the dots is quoted as, "Students in Introductory Psychology will apply the four steps of the scientific method to determine if parapsychology constitutes a science." (Newman 2013).
How does the Common Core State Standards Initiative play a role in designing effective instruction?
Common State Standards Initiative plays a key role in effective instruction design because teachers rely on the core standards as presented by the state, wherein are clear objectives. If a teacher knows the objectives from the state, then they can better plan learning objectives for each individual lesson to be in line with state core standards.
What are some common pitfalls in planning effective lessons? How can we avoid these pitfalls?
Teachers make lessons that are 'hands on' but not 'minds on' (Newman 2013)
What does backwards design mean?
Backwards design is a lesson design path, and teaching method where the lesson works backwards from the end goal.
Traditional versus Backward Design Planning Process (Newman 2013)
Develop clear and concise learning objectives.
Clarity, completeness, and specificity (Newman 2013).
This is a good learning objective because it not only tells exactly what is expected of the students, but it states that '4 steps' will be applied to determine if parapsychology constitutes a science or not. It makes it clear that the '4 steps' will be taught and that students will use the skill to make decisions relevant to their class.
Teachers focus on teaching the whole book rather than on specific ideas (Newman 2013)
Time restraints: too much or too little time for delivering the lesson.
Backwards design lesson planning begins with focusing on outputs rather than inputs such as in traditional lesson plan design.
A Great way to liven up your lessons and make them more effective is through Backwards Design. It differs just a little from traditional design.
Traditional design starts with selecting a topic, then developing a method of teaching the material with activities. The lesson is taught. After that, an assessment is given. A teacher can then give feedback to the student and move on to the next topic.
Backwards design starts with selecting a topic, then develop a method of assessment. Then come up with activities and a method to teach the material. The lesson is taught. The teacher is then able to access the results of the class based on the developed method of assessment. Feedback can then be given and based on results, the lesson can be retaught or a new topic can be considered.
In a backward design lesson plan, the actual lesson plan is divided into three stages (Halverson 2009). Each stage has been listed to the right. This lesson plan would be for an intermediate EFL class of which age is not important so long as learners have been correctly placed at an intermediate level of English.
Topic: What is Your Occupation/Profession
New Language: Asking descriptive questions.
By the end of the lesson, students should be able to describe their job and place of work. Students will also be able to ask other people about their professions and places of work.
In order to demonstrate competency in the new topic, the teacher will be able to observe students practicing their new language with one another through the activities. and will have completed a chart of students and professions.
Teach the words for common professions and have students practice spelling, pronunciation and descriptions for each occupation.
Review question words and descriptive adjectives. Have students work in groups asking questions about their partner's job. ie. Where do you work? Do you like your job? What do you do at your job?
Give students each a copy of a chart with each students name on it and spaces for responses to questions about their profession. All students are then free to walk about the room, speaking with people about their jobs and filling in their charts based on the responses on their chart. The teacher will be able to walk around interacting with students and hearing their practice, helping where necessary.
How Traditional and Backwards Design Compare