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Chapter 3-Fundamentals of Physical Fitness

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Jennifer Morgan

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 3-Fundamentals of Physical Fitness

Fundamentals of Physical Fitness (CH.3)
While Physical Fitness seems like one thing, it's really just the tip of a VERY LARGE iceberg.
Physical Fitness, PA, and Exercise
Assessing PA and Fitness
Before beginning a program, it is important to know your current fitness status, so that you can generate the appropiate program and do it in a safe manner.
Principles of Training
Principles of Training are EXTREMELY important to know, because without knowing them you will never be able to create a program, or even a workout that is effective and optimal for achieving your goals. Please note, there is not one way to create a program, so do not listen to the first GURU you hear speak...
Physical Fitness itself, is part of a larger "iceberg" known as "overall wellness".

Physical fitness is related to wellness in that it allows you to live a healthy life. It also improves the following:
elevates mood (mental state)
greater self esteem (self efficacy)
enhanced relationships (environment/social)
Types of Fitness
In the world of fitness, there are many ways to increase PA, but normally, "fitness" can be broken down into two categories: Health Related Fitness and Skill Related Fitness
Physical Fitness
A set of attributes that a person to carry out daily tasks with alertness, without fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy their own leisure pursuits and respond to emergencies.
What is the Difference Between these Terms Then?
All PA requires movement and energy expenditure,
but not all PA develops or increases PF*

Regardless, PF and PA are linked to "longer, healthier, life."
Physical Activity
ANY movement of the body. Physical Activity requires work by the body's muscles, which requires energy in the form of calories.
Tell Me...
Who do you think is more "fit"/"healthy", an Olympic level athlete or someone who works out 3+ times a week? Why?
Is all activity "exercise"...if it's not then what is "exercise?
Health Related
components have a direct effect on health status, disease risk and day to day function.
Who is this most important for?
Skill Related
Components influence your performance level in various activities less directly related to health. This is also known as MOTOR FITNESS or PERFORMANCE RELATED FITNESS.
Who is this most important for? Why?
Skill Related Fitness Components
Agility
ability to change direction and position of the body in a quick and precise manner
Balance
ability to maintain equilibrium when sitting, standing or moving.
Power
ability to exert maximal force in a minimum amount of time.
Coordination
ability to synchronize multiple movement patterns into sequenced, efficient and controlled movement.
Reaction Time
Amount of time between a stimulus and one's response to that stimulus
Speed
ability to perform movement in a short period of time
Theses fitness attributes make you function in a more skilled/efficient way and can increase desire to participate in skill related activity that can "influence" your health
The components you are about to learn, you probably don't associate with fitness, because you develop "enough" of them as a child is, the issue then becomes, when you age, it is these things, that end up holding you back from quality of living, because when you do not train something, it eventually regresses...
With that in mind, perhaps this should be considered in older adult exercise prescription?
Health Related Fitness is important because without these components your current ability to function in day to day life may be inhibited..You may also be at risk for chronic disease by neglecting these things.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to sustain physical activity by supplementing O2 to working muscles.

This is developed mainly by aerobic activities like walking, jogging, and cycling. BUT it can also be developed through other means...
Muscular Strength
Ability of a muscle/group of muscles to contract/generate/apply force. Often times this is exhibited against resistance. However, it is not always the case. There are three kinds of muscular strength (1)isometric (2)eccentric (3)concentric which together make up a triphasic action that makes up a full movement.
Muscular Endurance
Ability of a group of muscles or a muscle to sustain an effort for an extended period of time
Flexibility
Ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion
Body Composition
relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone, and vital tissues of the body
NOTE: EXERCISE is a type of PA, it is planned, repetitive movements of the body programmed to develop physical fitness
If you are "walking on a treadmill" is this Physical Activity, Exercise, or Physical Fitness?
Medical Clearance
1. Complete a PAR-Q (physical activity readiness questionnaire) to make sure you have no complicating health factors.
**if you are not between 15-69, or if you have never been active before, you should speak with your doctor before beginning to exercise.
Assessing Fitness
Along the way we will learn about different assessments for different fitness components (health and skill related). What might these asses:
225 rep test:
YMCA step test:
Bench 1rm:
Skinfolds:
Wingate:
Assessing General Physical Activity Levels
Just because you are busy, does not mean that you are active, PHYSICALLY.
It is standard practice, that if one is "healthy" enough for fitness testing, then it should be done, testing each of the health-related-fitness components (as well as skill-components if that is in line with your goal).
2. A doctor will never want to keep you from exercise, but rather identify the best way to participate while being safe
There is no technique that is simple and precise, or even the accepted standard to assess overall physical activity, but these are some options: pedometer (10,000 a day is often promoted), Activity Logs, Fuelband
FITT Formula
Frequency , Intensity, Time, Type can be applied to the different fitness components.

You can use these to create an exercise program.
Other Considerations
Clothing and Safety Gear: elbow and wrist guards, helmets, eye protection, mouth guards, cups, sports bra, etc

Exercise Equipment and Facilities: find a place to have equipment in line with with your goals.

Weather: Keep yourself well hydrated for the weather condition and wear appropriate clothes:
(pre) 17-20 oz fluid 2-3hr before, 7-10oz 10-20min before
(during)based on changes in BW during training
(post)20-25oz for every lb of bw lost
Making a Program
We will cover this in great detail over the semester but things a program should include:

warm up
cool down
training reflective of decreasing weaknesses and increasing fitness components in line with your goal
injury prevention (prehab)
periodization
Principles
Progressive Overload
body will respond to gradual application of increasing amounts of stress (can be load) during exercise training by increasing fitness/work capacity/ or a desired attribute.
Reversibility
decrease or cease of activity will cause a decline in fitness.
Recovery
time needed for the body to rebuild and improve tissue weakness from the increased activity (overload).
Specificity
the principle that the body adapts to specific types and amounts of stress placed on it.
Individuality
There are many factors that come into play, out off our control, that determine how "fit and skilled" one can be. Sure everyone can improve, but to be the top 1%, that is not always in our control.
However, if you only take this approach, you will eventually "tap out" or reach a ceiling. This is why it is important to understand how each fitness attribute relates to one another.
If you approach training and exercise from a viewpoint of always training your weakest links as well as progressive overload, you can continue to make gains.
If you progressively ran your 5k, a little faster each week, but then stalled, what else could you do to continue to make gains?
all overload requires a period of deloading, so that the new level of fitness can stabilize and no longer be seen as stressful.
Yes, this does occur, and at different rates for different attributes. It occurs quickly for cardiovascular components (<week) and at about a month for strength related components.
Recovery is much shorter than "inactivity" (1-2 days) and in times when it can last as long as a week (deload) it will still include exercise, but with reduced volume or intensity.
Specificity applies within general components being trained (cardiovascular v. strength) and within the actual component itself (so within strength, building myofibilar v. sacroplasmic hypertrophy (muscle size).
FITT FORMULA
Frequency
depends on component being trained, goals, and current fitness level.

When starting you may begin at a low frequency, and increase frequency overtime. Also, if you are working at a high intensity, then you will want to consider lowering the frequency to prevent over-training.

ACSM Guidelines:
Cardioresp Endurance Training: 3-5x a week
Muscle-Fitness: 2-3x a week
Flexibility: 2-3x a week
Intensity
To improve, you must progressively increase intensity over time. Intensity that is too high can lead to injury, and too low, can contribute to burning calories, but not actual fitness levels.

If your goal is to reach your target zone(optimal intensity range for achieving maximum fitness benefits) the your intensity should reflect that.

With that in mind the threshold (minimum intensity for achieving specific fitness benefit), is the minimum intensity you should apply to reach your goal.

Not just measured by heart rate, but by other things: percent of 1rm, how far you stretch, etc
Time/Duration
measuring number of minutes of activity. Should be reflective of your goal. Normally, the higher the intensity, the lower the duration or frequency.

However, this is not always the case. Also, maintenance requires less time then a change (i.e cardio or diet to increase body composition).

With some activity, time is actually dictated by the hormonal responses that can occur, to achieve optimal results
Type
Exercise type should reflect goals. However, different activities should be used to achieve health and skill components of fitness.

Choose activities based on your goal, fitness level, and environment.

Finally, keep in mind, that when progress plateaus, you must work on your weaknesses to continue making progress.
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