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Exploring the

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Karolina Krupa

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Exploring the

Timbuktu
Food was grown on the level areas near the river for all people living in cities farther north of the Niger River and towns along the trade routes across the desert.
The Niger River helped the kingdom of Mali to develop a stable economy. This contributed the rise of the Mali empire.
The Mali Empire grew and prospered by the gold trade and developed agricultural resources along the river.
Timbuktu also became the center of learning, luxury and trade, where people met with desert nomad, and scholars and merchants from other parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Europe came to the markets.

• Mali is known for its many contributions.
It is known for developing the first method of counting.
• They had a calendar known as the African Stone hedge.
• The people of Mali also built boats 100 feet long and 13 feet wide that held 80 tons.

Contributions
Achievements
• Desert sandstorms in the North are serious in Mali.
• Dust-laden harmattan wind is common during dry seasons, bringing a dust haze which may cause aggravating respiratory diseases.
• Recurring droughts are common in Mali.
• Bush fires in the South occur frequently.
• Occasional floods, especially in July.
• Tropical thunderstorms in the South sometimes brought wind and lightning damage as well as flash floods.
• Occasional Niger River flooding
also occured.

Natural Hazards
Mali consists of mostly flatland of granite and shale, covered in sandstone.
It extends over two main structures, the West African craton* in the west, and the Tuareg shield in the southeast. It came together at the end of the Precambrian era between 600-550 million years ago.
The suture zone* is to the west of the Adrar des Ifoghas Mountains.
The rocks of the West African craton are covered in the northwest by sediments of the Taoudeni basin, with two main crops of rocks. These rocks contain valuable minerals.
Petroleum reserves are also found in the Taoudeni basin.

Geology!
• Mali is located in West Africa, southwest of Algeria, extending southwest from the Sahara through the Sahel, to the Savanna zone.
• Approximately 1.2 million square kilometers, comparable to the size of South Africa, smaller than Quebec and twice the size of Texas.
• Mali has a total of 7 bordering states: Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, and Mauritania.

Geography of Mali!
atural Resources
Mali has many natural resources, such as: bauxite, copper, diamonds, gold, granite, iron ore, limestone, lithium, phosphates, salt, silver, uranium, and zinc. Mali also has an excess of hydro power.
Land Masses and Use
65% of Mali’s land is desert or semi-desert.
5.63% of the area can be classified as arable land.
0.1% was planted to
permanent crops.
Mali also has 100 kilometers of renewable water resources and almost 2.5 square kilometers of irrigated land.
Mali rose to greatness under the leadership of a legendary king named Sundiata, or the "Lion King."
Later, another great leader named Mansa Musa extended the empire.
Mali reached its peak during the rule of Mansa Munsa during the 14th century, when he seized Timbuktu, and Mali became the center of Muslim religion.


Peak
Peak
After the death of Mansa Musa, his sons were not able to hold the empire together.
The smaller states eventually started to break off and the empire crumbled.
The kingdom went into a long decline, shrinking in size of the original territory.
Uprising invaders tore apart the Mali empire by destroying mosques, and great schools that the scholars went to study the holy book of Islam.
By the 1500, Mali lost most of their land they once ruled.

The Fall of Mali
The Mali Empire reached its peak in the early 14th century under the rule of Mansa Musa. The countries wealth began with Mansa Musa’s famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324.
He included thousands of soldiers, officials and attendants, 100 camels carrying 300 pounds of gold, and 500 maids and slaves to serve his wife. They wanted to proclaim the prosperity and power of Mali.
When he finally reached Egypt, Mansa Musa paid homage to the sultan with gifts of gold. By distributing gold, he decreased it's value by 10- 25%.
During his rule, Muslim scholarships reached new heights in Mali, such as cities like Timbuktu and Djenné, which became important centers for trade, learning and culture.

A craton (Greek: "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, found in the interiors of tectonic plates, and composed of ancient crystalline basement rock.
A suture zone, in structural geology, is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate tectonic plates.
ansa Musa
nvironmental Issues
Mali faced many different environmental challenges including:
desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, and drought.
Deforestation became an especially serious and growing problem.
Mali’s population consumed 6 million tons of wood per year. To meet this demand, 400,000 hectares of tree land was lost annually.

poken Languages
3 Languages
Bambara
Fulani
Bozo
Timbuktu, city in west African region of Mali, is historically important as a trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route and as a center of Islamic culture (c. 1400–1600).
It is located on the southern edge of the Sahara, about 8 miles (13 km) north of the Niger River.
Timbuktu’s location at the meeting point of desert and water made it an ideal trading center.
In the late 13th or early 14th century it was incorporated into the Mali empire.

Think of a legendary figure in any country or place, during any time period. Think about any significant or important actions that she/he was involved in, and write one down.
Do Now
By the 14th century it was a flourishing center for the trans-Saharan gold and salt trade, and it grew as a center of Islamic culture. Three of western Africa’s oldest mosques—Djinguereber (Djingareyber), Sankore Madrasah, and Sidi Yahia—were built there during the 14th and early 15th centuries.
Continued...
Religion


• Islam is the most frequently worshipped religion in Mali.
• It is a monotheistic faith.
• Islam is the second largest religion in the world.
• In Arabic, Islam means “submission” and defined as a “way of life.”
• Muslims are followers of the Islamic religion and believe God revealed the direct path for mankind.
• All Muslims must believe “There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God.”
• There are six basic beliefs of the islamic religion:
1. Belief in God, the one and only one worthy of all worship
2. Belief in the Angels
3. Belief in the Book
4. Belief in all the Prophets and Messengers
5. Belief in the Day of Judgment and in the Resurrection
6. Belief in Fate

Exploring the
Empire of Mali!

Sundiata Keita
When Sundiata was young, Sumanguru Kante, king of the Soso Empire, annexed Kangaba.
Infuriated by the kings actions, Sundiata Keita gathered several chiefs and brought down the Soso Empire.
Sundiata Keita’s real name was Mari Diata, but changed it after the fall of the Soso Empire.
Sundiata means “lion prince” and Keita is the name of his families dynasty.
He used the village of Niani as the capital.
Sundiata led the Mali Empire into several decades of prosperity in trade and wealth.


• Common language of West Africa.
• Belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger-Congo language family.
• Western dialects call Fulani “Pulaar” while central and eastern dialects call Fulani “Fulfuide.”


• Spoken by the Bozo fishing people of the Niger Delta in Mali.
• Bozo language is considered one language, but still has different diversity through clusters in its language structure.
• Bozo clusters break down into four main parts of a structure: Hainyaxo, Tiema Cewe,
Tieyaxo, and Sorogaama.


• Also known as Bamana.
• Subject-Object-Verb language (Usually uses the subject first, object second, and verb last in a phrase).
• Traced back to the ancient city of Manding (Modern-Day Kita, Mali).
• Described as a mutually intelligible dialect.

Fulani
Bozo
Bambara

The decline of Timbuktu began when it was captured by Morocco in the late 16th century.
Scholars were arrested, killed, or exiled to Morocco.
The weak Moroccan strength failed to protect Timbuktu during it’s capture and led to several attacks by Bambara, Fulani, and Tuareg.
After the Ghanian Empire was invaded by the Soso Empire (led by Sumanguru Kante), Muslim scholars fled to Timbuktu to reimburse the Islamic religion.

Topography!
Mali is composed of three natural zones: the southern cultivated Sudanese zone, central semiarid Sahelia zone, and northern arid Saharan zone.
The land of Mali is mainly the Savanna of South Africa and both flat and rolling plains.
Plateau’s, in the North, at an approximate high of 200 to about 500 meters in elevation also compose parts of Mali.
Rugged hills in Northeast Mali reach heights of 1,000 meters.
Decline of Timbuktu
Sankore Madrasah
Sidi Yahia
Djinguereber
Take notes! A review game will be played at the end of the presentation!
How do you think the Mali Empire fell after learning about the significance of it's peak?
Continued...
Mali is about 65% desert and semi-desert, however, the Niger River creates fertile land.
Mali’s lowest point of elevation is the Sengal River which is as low as 23 meters while the highest point in Mali is Hombori Tondo which reaches 1,115 meters high.
The Niger River and Senegal are Mali’s largest rivers.
The rivers are known to be the lifeblood within Mali, providing food, drinking water, irrigation, and transportation.
Timbuktu and Djenne were key links in the eastern trans-Sahara caravan trade.
The Mali Empire rose as the Ghanian Empire declined.
The Mali Empire spread across Western Africa and areas across the Atlantic Ocean.
The population estimate was about 40-50 million people.
Centralized political and military power allowed the Kings to keep their identities known in the kingdoms.
Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage led to an enormous amount of wealth for the Mali Empire.

"Mansa" means emperor or master
Timbuktu had a large number of important manuscripts that were preserved for centuries in private households in Timbuktu, Mali.
The collection included manuscripts about art, medicine, philosophy and science, as well of priceless copies of the Quran.
There was an estimate as high as 700,000.
The dates of the manuscripts ranged from late 13th to 20th century.
The subject matter ranged from scholarly works to short letters.
Most of the manuscripts remain
unstudied and uncatalogued​.
Timbuktu
Manuscripts
Objective: To educate the class about the ancient Mali Empire and to analyze the rise and fall of the Mali Empire during the 1300-1500s.
Purpose: Students will be able to assess the ancient civilizations of African countries.
What would be one of the reasons why you think Sundiata Keita brought down the Soso Empire?
Video Time
Based on where Mali is located, what do you think are some of the natural hazards?
What do you think the Malian woman grew for their source of food?
Beans
Rice
Onions
Millet
Papaya
Peanuts
Full transcript