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Transcript of Curriculum Design
DESIGN WHAT IS A CURRICULUM ? "All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. "
(Kerr, quoted in Kelly 1983: 10) 'A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice'
(Stenhouse, 1975) Set of basic competences,
goals, contents, methodology
and evaluation that teachers
plan, implement and evaluate
in the educational centers. LOE 2006 Tyler (1949) :
- What educational purposes should the school seek to achieve?
- What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to help achieve those purposes?
-How can the educational experiences be effectively organized?
- How can we determine whether these purposes have been attained? Types of curriculum Subject centered
Follows a prescribed content
It involves the use of standard materials determined by the institution Learner centered
Teacher and students decide about the content and how it is taught.
It includes aims related to language skills but also to learning skills Resources
Cantón Mayo &Pino-Juste, M. (Eds) 2011 Diseño y Desarrollo del Currículum. Alianza Edit.
What is curriculum. School of Education and Cognitive Science. http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/MEdHOME/MEd2.html
Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000) 'Curriculum theory and practice' the encyclopaedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm. ‘Hidden curriculum’
What is it? Philip Jackson , Life in Classrooms (1968) "the entire range of educational experiences promoted by schools and teachers through practices that are not necessarily written down. " "informal curriculum deals with socio-psychological interaction among students, teachers and administrators, especially in relation to their feelings, attitudes and behaviours"
1. Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted.
2. Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students - product.
3. Curriculum as process.
4. Curriculum as praxis. Ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice:
1. Curriculum as a content
(body of knowledge to be transmitted. )
An approach to curriculum theory and practice which focuses on syllabus is only really concerned with content. Curriculum is a body of knowledge-content and/or subjects. Education in this sense, is the process by which these are transmitted or 'delivered' to students by the most effective methods that can be devised (Blenkin et al 1992: 23). 2. Curriculum as a product =
"an attempt to achieve certain ends in students
The dominant modes of describing and managing education follow the productive form. Education is most often seen as a technical exercise. Objectives are set, a plan drawn up, then applied, and the outcomes (products) measured" detailed attention to what
people needs to know in order
to work, live their lives and so on. Real purpose of education = to bring about significant changes in the students' pattern of behaviour
Any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students. (Tyler 1949: 44) ‘A programme of activities (by teachers and pupils) designed so that pupils will attain so far as possible certain educational and other schooling ends or objectives (Grundy 1987: 11).
Curriculum is not a physical thing, but rather the interaction of teachers, students and knowledge.
Curriculum is what actually happens in the classroom and what people do to prepare and evaluate.
Curriculum is seen as a scheme about the practice of teaching. It is not a package of materials or a syllabus of content to be covered.
Students are considered active learners who act on the content. They have a say in what is going on in the teaching-learning sessions
What happens in the classroom may differ from what has been specified in the curriculum document Where do I start? Curriculum as a process In this approach the curriculum itself develops through the dynamic interaction of action and reflection. 'That is, the curriculum is not simply a set of plans to be implemented, but rather is constituted through an active process in which planning, acting and evaluating are all reciprocally related and integrated into the process' (Grundy 1987: 115). At its centre is praxis: informed, committed action. Curriculum as praxis 1) What are some advantages of this approach?
Can you think of any disadvantages? "Teachers who like uniformity in what is taught will find this approach problematic" Do you agree with this statement? Explain your reasons With which of these approaches to curriculum design do you feel more identified?
What will you need to learn in order to be able to plan a curriculum?
INFORMATION TAKEN FROM
Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000) 'Curriculum theory and practice' the encyclopaedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm.