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Easteren Europe

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eastern eruope

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Easteren Europe

Changes in central and Eastern Eruope In the 1990's the Soviet Reforms happened in Central and Eastern Europe, the people soon discovered that increased freedom sometimes challenges the social order. Mikhail Gorbachev's new ideas in the Soivet Unio led him to urge Central and Eastern European leaders to open up their economic and political systems. The dying communist leaders of Europe of course did not like reform. But forces for democracy were building higher and higher. Before, the threat for Soviet intervention had kept these leaders in check, now, Gorbachev was saying that the Soviet Union would not oppose reform. Poland and Hungary were the first to give democracy a best friend hug. In 1990, Polish workers at the Gdansk shipyard went on strike, demanding government recognition of their union, solidarity. When millions of poles supported, government gave into union's demands. Union leader Lech Walesa became a national hero. The next year, the polish government banned solidarity again and declared martial law. The Communist Party discovered that military rule could not revive Poland's failing economy. In the 1980's industrial production declined, while foreign dept rose to $40 billion In August 1988, mad as ever workers walked out on their jobs, in order for them to start working, they demanded raises and the legalization of Solidarity. General Jaruzelski agreed to hold talks with the solidarity leaders. April 1998, Jaruzelski legalized Solidarity and agreed to have Poland's first free election since the communists took over. During the 1989, and 1990 elections voters voted against communism and voted for Solidarity candidates, Lech Walesa was elected President. Lech Walesa tryed to revive Poland's bankrubt economy, he tryed to shock up Poland to a free-market economy. By the mid-1990's, the economy was Improving. But... many poles were still unhappy with the pace that the economy was progressing. Election Day 1995... Poland stabbed Walesa in the back, and voted for a former communist Aleksander Kwasniewski. K-was (kwasniewski) led Poland in its drive to become part of a broader European Community. In 1999, Poland became a full member of NATO (North Atlanic Treaty Organization). As a member, Poland provided strong support in the war against terrorism after the attack of 9/11 in the USA. K-was continued the efforts of previous leaders to establish a strong market economy in Poland. Unemployment and poverty continued to be a strong problem, but K-was pushed for democracy and free market. Hungary soon followed Poland's choices, and launched a sweeping reform program. To stimulate economic growth, reformers encouraged private enterprise and allowed a small stock market operate. Also a new constitution permitted a multiparty system with free elections. The pace of change grew faster when radical reformers took over a communist party congress in October 1989, the radicals deposed the party's leaders and then dissolved the party itself. A very first... a European Communist Party had voted itself out of existence. A year later, the nation voted a mom-communist government in power. 1994, a socialist party made up of former communists won a majority of seats in Hungary's parliament. The socialist party and a democratic party formed a coalition, to rule. In parliamentary elections in 1998, a liberal party won the most seats in the National Assembly, in 1999, Hungary joined NATO as a full member. In 2001, there was a general economic downtown in Hungary, that was due to weak exports, decline in foreign investment, and excessive spending on state pensions and increased minimum wages. Poland and Hungary were moving tward reform, but East-Germany's 77yr old party boss, Erich Honecker, dismissed reforms as unnecessary. In 1989, Hungary allowed vacationing tourists from East Germany to cross the border into Austria, from there, they could travel to West Germany. But instead West Germans saw this as an excape. In response, the East German government closed it's borders entirely. By October 1989, hudge demonstrations had broken out in cities across East Germany. The protesters demanded the right to travel freely, and later added the demand fo free elections. Honecker lost his authority with the party and resigned on October 18th. June 1987, President Reagan had stood before the Berlin Wall and demanded: "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!". 2 yrs. later, the wall was fur sure about to come down. The new East German leader, Egon Krenz, boldly gambled that he could restore stability by allowing people to leave East Germany. On November 9, he opened the Berlin Wall. Krenz' dramatic try at getting communism back failed epicly, by the end of 1989 The East German Communist Party no longer existed. With the fall of Communism in East Germany, many Germans began talking about reunification, the merging of the 2 Germany's. But may people feared a united Germany. 26 West German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, assured world leaders that Germany learned from the past, they were now committed to Democracy and human rights. His assurances helps persuade other European countries accept German reunification. On October 3, 1990 Germany was united. 40 yrs. of Communism in Germany left her in ruins. Raliroads, highways, and telephone systems had not been updated since WWII. East Germany produced goods that could not compete in the global market. To make pay, Kohl raised taxes. As taxpayers bit their tongues workers faced another problem... Unemployment. Inefficient factories closed, causing millions of workers to loose their jobs. In 1998, voters said bye-bye to Kohl and elected Gerhard Schroeder, of the Socialist Democratic Party. Schroeder started as a market reformer, but slow growing ecomomy made reform difficult. Even though Germany had the 3rd largest economy, it was the slowest growing ecomomy in Europe in the early 21st centrury. It's unemployment rate was the highest as well, and rising inflation was a continuing problem. While alot of people were demanding Democracy in East Germany, neighboring Czechoslovakia remained quiet. A conservative government led by Milos Jakes kept the people of Czech quiet as a mouse. In 1989, the police arrested several dissidents, one was the Czech playwright Va'clav Havel a popular critic of the government. October 28, 1989, around 10,000 people gathered in Wenceslas Square in the center of Prague. They demanded Democracy and freedom. 100's were arrested. 3 weeks later 25,000 students inspired by the fall of the Berlin wall gathered in Prague to demand reform, following government orders, police beat the demonstrators and injured 100's. The government crackdown angered the Czech people. Hudge crowds gathered in Wenceslas Square. They demanded Democracy. November 25, about 500,000 people crowded in downtown Progue. Within hours Milos Jakes chickened out and resigned, a month later a new parliment election voted for Va'clav Harvel as president of Czech. In Czech, reformers tryed out ''shock therapy''. This caused high unemployment, it especially hurt Slovakia, the republic occupying the eastern third of Czech. Later the Czech republic drifted apart, Havel pleaded for unity, a movement to the nation gained support amoung the people. Havel resigned because of this. Czech was 2 countries on January 1, 1993. Havel was reelected in 1998, then in 2003 steped down. By 1989, Romania was the only one to not give in to reform. Romania's ruthless Communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu who kept a nice chunk of power. His secret Police enfored brutally. Romania was aware of reform, so people started to protest. In december, Ceausecu ordered the army to open fire on the protesters in the city of Timisoara. The army killed and wounded many. The massacre caused a popular aprising against Ceausescu. Within days the army turned to the peoples side. Ceausescu and his wife tryed to flee. They were caught, tried and executed on X-mas day. Romania held general elections in 1990 1992, and in 1996. In 2000 elections, Ion IIiescu was elected for the 3rd term. In order to get into the EU, Romanian government began to move away from a state-controlled economy. Yugoslavia was formed after WWI with many ethnic groups such as: Serbians, Croats, Muslims, Slovenes, Macedonians, Albanians, Hungarians, and Montenegrins, because of this Yugoslavia became 6 republics.
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