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Research Methods Presentation
Transcript of Research Methods Presentation
Group 5 AlCOHOL USE IN college Research Question: How do different parenting styles affect drinking patterns of college-aged young adults?
Target Population: Duke Unversity Undergraduates
Sampling via invitations through Facebook and listservs
Analysis using SPSS
Survey Details Short Unsigned Informed Consent
Demographics: Gender, School Year, Age, Family Structure
The survey continued: How often they drink in college
How many drinks they consume per drinking session in college
How they would describe their overall drinking pattern in college
Same questions regarding high school drinking behavior The survey ended with: What was the parenting style for: father, mother, male guardian, and female guardian?
If parents were separated, which did they spend the most time with?
What describes the enforcement of discipline in their family? Sample: 94 Duke University Undergraduates
53.1% (n=49) male
Mean age: 19.9yrs (SD=1.15)
By academic year: Freshmen-22.6%, Sophomores-23.7%, Juniors-32.3%, and Seniors-22.5%
97.9% (n=92) participants come from traditional (male-female) two parent households.
Participants: Questions? Procedure: Rationale: Several studies have been conducted on parenting styles and adolescent drinking behavior, but there are few studies that focus on how these drinking behaviors are maintained once out of the household. Hypothesis: Background: What we already know: Parenting styles are correlated with initial drinking levels and rate of increase of alcohol misuse in adolescents (Barnes et. al., 2000)
Baumrind (1967) classifies 4 main parenting styles: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved
What we already know: Contents-specific parental monitoring efforts have been shown to be key in limiting the likelihood of heavy episodic drinking over time (Huver et. al., 2006 and Walls et. al., 2009).
Frequency of direct communication between parents and adolescents was shown to be positively associated with alcohol consumption (van der Vorst et. Al, 2005).
What we already know: Why is it important: This is an extremely important area of study, as parents have been identified as the primary socialization agent during childhood, with the influence of siblings, peers, teachers, and media being secondary to parental influence (Jackson & Henriksen, 1996).
However, little research has been done on the connection between college-aged young adults’ attitudes toward alcohol and past parenting styles.
The college-aged demographic is an interesting one to study, as the parental socialization process is in its last stages, and it is the first time in their lives that they are no longer under parental influence.
Parental monitoring is implicated in reducing the likelihood of heavy episodic drinking in adolescents.
Research by Barnes et al., showed that parenting significantly predicts initial drinking levels as well as rate of increase in alcohol misuse (2000). study limitations Self-report measures inherent limitations:
Such as: Extremely subjective, Bias: Retrospective distortions and unconscious influences
Selective Bias: use of Greek listservs
Sole use of Duke undergraduates
Due to the lack of variance in the reported parental styles (74% Authoritative) we were unable to draw any conclusion about parenting and drinking.
We sent our surveys out to be completed to an extremely large amount of people, however, only approximately 100
Future Directions: It would be interesting to determine the degree to which peer relations affect alcohol use in high school vs. in college.
Comparing the effectiveness of parenting styles on alcohol use by differing universities would provide a more representive sample.
Do longitudinal study to see if the effect of parenting styles on alcohol use persists later in life
In addition to conducting study at a range of universities, using a more random sampling
We believe that Permissive parenting style, as compared to other parenting styles, will lead to increased alcohol use, both by frequency of drinking and alcohol consumption per drinking session, in college.
We believe that Authoritative parenting style, as compared to other parenting styles, will lead to decreased alcohol use, both by frequency of drinking and alcohol consumption per drinking session, in college. Results: High School vs. College Drinking Patterns The data regarding frequency (how often) of high school drinking were centered on “monthly or less” and “2-4 times a month” at around 33% each; compared to college where data were centered on “2-3 times a week” at about 71%
2.2% Never drinking in College vs. 23% Never drinking in High School
Findings were similar regarding overall drinking patterns—showing an increase in drinking behavior
There was little change from high school to college regarding quantity of drinks on a typical day when one is drinking
Interpretations: Parents are no longer around to check on you.
Duke itself, aside from other colleges, is especially lenient regarding alcohol consumption, even for minors.
There are more opportunities for consumption in college.
Drinking in college is a means of social bonding.
Drinking in college is more socially accepted than drinking in high school.
College is a time of experimentation.
Drinking at parties helps one to “fit in.”
Blacking out is not only accepted but joked about.
Some believe that drinking helps facilitate encounters with the opposite sex.
Higher rates of depression in college.
Parenting Styles and Drinking Behavior Significant findings for:
relationship between overall high school and overall college drinking behavior
relationship between quantity of drinks on a typical day/night of drinking in high school and in college
Trend toward significance for:
relationship between college drinking behavior and source of family discipline (mother, father, shared); frequencies may show that, on average, children with parents who shared the role of disciplinarian were less likely to be frequent or problem drinkers than children whose mother or father played the dominant role
Interpretations: Relationship between high school and college drinking patterns:
those who drank in high school would be more likely to drink in college
those who did not drink in high school because they feared getting in trouble would be likely to drink in college where it is accepted or at least tolerated on campus.
Relationship between family disciplinarian roles and college drinking:
possible that children who grew up in a home where parents did not hold a unified front against underage drinking behavior, or where parents had different rules regarding alcohol, were more likely to get away with drinking in high school and drink more in college as a result
Parenting Styles and Drinking Patterns: Overall drinking pattern in college vs. mother’s parenting style—not significant; .157
Overall drinking pattern in college vs. father’s parenting style—not significant; .459
Neither are significant findings, so we can draw no conclusions regarding this relationship.
Conclusions: No conclusion can be made regarding the relationship between parenting styles and college drinking patterns.
College students at Duke University can be described as moderate to frequent drinkers, drinking 2-3 times a week, and consuming 3-6 drinks on a typical day/night of drinking.
An overwhelming majority of college students at Duke University can also be described as having authoritative parents.