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Transcript of Love Vocabulary
Extracts we are using (Videos)
Core & Non-Core Vocabulary
Conclusion Introduction Core VS Non-Core Shakespeare’s vocabulary came from a mixture of Old English, French, Latin, Old Norse and German. The sophisticated non-core words were borrowed items from the foreign languages and used by the upper classes who had access to the learning of these foreign languages. However, core words were mainly made up of Old English lexical items and used by the lower class such as for speeches to the common man. This is seen when Claudio scorns Hero for not being pure and chaste in front of the guests at his wedding. Nur Adibah EL2211, W4, Dr. Peter Tan Watt Yi Ting Claudio's soliloquy WORD FORMS CONCLUSION More detailed, imagery portrayal of the story More dramatic impact Relationships words have with
the "non-linguistic" world CONTENT
WORDS Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns, Adverbs Main meaning of a sentence Affixation Lexical Expansion Simple words + affixes Inflectional Derivational Derivational: Changes the word class Houre (noun) Hourely (adj) MELTETH melt + eth (verb) Compounding Morphology (Howard & Ze Amvela, 2000) Relating thoughts & emotions WHY We create more words from existing ones More ways to express ourselves more clearly To meet the demands of speakers LEXICAL EXPANSION Lexical Expansion SIMPLE WORDS Free morphemes Smallest meaningful unit of a word; cannot be broken down further Able to make meaning on its own Complex Words COMPLEX WORDS Trust (noun) Mistrust (verb) Mistrusted (verb) (suffix) 3rd person singular simple present indicative form COMPLEX WORDS Derivational: change in word class Rot (verb) Rotten (adj) Guilty (adj) Guiltiness (noun) Modest (adj) Modesty (noun) Blush + es - principle of least effort Easier to pronounce Shew + es Shewe + s Scribes not consistent? Word is an exception? COMPOUND WORDS No morphological modifications New concepts Both words are free morphemes COMPOUND
WORDS Inflectional: Grammatical FRIENDSHIP friend + ship (noun) (suffix) -ship denoting a condition/quality (noun) no change in word class COMPOUND
WORDS Preposition 'with' End of the clause Much Ado About Nothing More descriptions of Claudio's emotions and feelings -s -es archaic To expand is easier than to create Lyricism Love Vocabulary in Shakespeare’s Much Ado about Nothing is represented by the verbal exchanges between the lovers . Interestingly, Claudio and Hero’s minimal dialogue highlights their lack of interaction. This is significant in Shakespeare’s plays as it shows the lack of autonomy they have in the play since the ability to speak is regarded as empowering . Hence, we have chosen to analyse two of the very few dialogues by Claudio. We will do so by examining Shakespeare’s use of Core & Non-Core Vocabulary, Vocabulary Change and Vocabulary Expansion. Claudio's wedding (1:05 onwards) (3:45-4:20) In Table 1.1, Shakespeare uses more non-core than core lexical items which shows Claudio’s social status through his familiarity with sophisticated non-core items. However, the presence of core items in his speech accommodates to the lower class linguistically with language convergence downwards to reduce social distance. Arguably, the usage of core items was intentional in order for more people to understand Claudio’s anger and frustration after finding out that Hero is not chaste and a “maiden” after all. In Extract 2, Claudio’s personal soliloquy reveals how he feels betrayed by Don Pedro as a friend; convinced that Don Pedro is wooing Hero for himself. Table 1.2 illustrates how there is a rather equal number of core and non-core lexical items. This could be linked to Claudio’s inherent emotion at this moment; of betrayal and hurt. Shakespeare makes him adopt OE words so that the audience understands his emotions and sympathizes with him while still retaining his sophistication with the presence of non-core words.
In Table 2.1, we can see that he retained the original non-core borrowed words with minimal change from its spellings and pronunciations. Old French words were used as it is with no change to the word at all. This is unlike the words from Old English (OE) which he changed by affixation or compounding. This change could also be attributed to the Great Vowel Shift, or perhaps for economical reasons to suit the iambic pentameter in his plays better. There are two exceptions though of the French words “authoritie” and “vertue’. Vocabulary Change In the early-16th-century, English “possessed an impoverished vocabulary” and thus, “Shakespeare simply invented the words”. Shakespeare was bold in influencing change in vocabulary and he did this through examining the non-core languages. In table 2.2 however, Claudio’s soliloquy has core and non-core items that both equally experienced vocabulary changes. This could be due to the fact that Shakespeare’s experimentation with words particularly in Claudio’s soliloquy is used to demonstrate the complexity and confusion that Claudio felt. The creation of more new words by Shakespeare would be unfamiliar to some of the audience and this confusion is representative of Claudio’s frustration in the scene. It is important to note though that some changes are just spelling changes without changes in pronunciation due to economical reasons. Shakespeare’s plays are uncommonly common in their mix of core and non-core words, and in the frequency with which they use particular words and hence his vocabulary is almost aggressively normal which explains his appeal to both the lower and upper classes. Words no longer in use: out of context/better ones More characterisation of characters