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When Asia was the World
Transcript of When Asia was the World
Southeast Asian timber
Pepper and Partnerships: Abraham bin Yiju (Chapter 5)
The Asian World (500-1500 CE)
The key individual of this chapter was Ibn Fadlan.
During the 12th century, Abraham bin Yiju, started to spread his religion along the North African Mediterranean coast.
Ibn Battuta comes from a family of judges. Throughout his life, he traveled everywhere from Africa, India and the Philippines to South east Asia and the Middle East. Overall this was more than 73,000 miles.
Each Chapter is based on real events and people.
People loved these guys because of all the knowledge they had about all their experiences .
Beginning of 500-1500 C.E. Asia was a Wonderful happy place.
Made a lot of important achievements in this time
-Mathematics: algebra and zero were adopted.
-astronomers: tracked stars better than ever.
-poets and writers: wrote amazing lit. that warms hearts still to this day.
-Philosophers: generated ways of thinking that are still used to this day.
When Asia was the World
Meant for trading
Chapter 1 Monasteries and Monarchs
Lash-lug method of shipbuilding
primarily wood, no metal interlocking design
*This lets the ship flex and bend under pressure, not break
How it sank:
Sunk during a fatal storm
Treasure and Treaty
Like the US Navy, China also traveled around their world, showing off the might of their ships and by extension, the power of China
Traveled around the seas and demanded tribute from countries
They would promise assistance against invaders even though they were to far away to help very often
They did once help a country by
destroying some pirates and
once regaining a King's throne.
They still got their tribute
They got spices from India
(while considered civilized) their only worth while product was pepper.
9. Medicines and
Tomé Pires's travels through Southeast Asia,
Tome Pires, a Portuguese apothecary
who had a 'luxurious' childhood and came from a well-off family, was chosen by the governor of newly-captured Malacca to restore order because he appeared to be a 'diligent man' that could work trouble out.
Malacca had been recently overtaken
by the Portuguese in attempt to have a hold on Asia.
The Portuguese wanted to trade in Asia. Unfortunately, what they had to offer had already been traded to Asian towns via the Silk Roads and the eastern water routes.
Portuguese goods had no appeal to Asian areas due to higher costs because the trading routes were far more dangerous.
Key individual of this chapter was Ma Huan
Why would the Portuguese
32 year old, poor man who was hired as a translator for Arabic languages.
His writings are of the few still in existence from this time of trade and travel. Other documents were burned because the fleets lost support. His is 1 of 2 eye witness accounts still in existence
The Portuguese weren't ones to merely accept the fact that they couldn't trade.
They sailed all the way over to Asia, around Africa.
They were going to get involved, no matter what it took.
•Some ships were > 200 ft long. They carried water, warriors (more than 20,000), chinese goods, and space to transport their goods back to China.
•These ships were gone for more than 2 years at a time. They would sail together and then separate in order to stop at all of their locations
Instead of diplomatic negotiations regarding goods and recognizing
local culture and kings,
went for conquest.
The plan was simple:
Seize trading cities.
pay for itself.
•The ships were powered by sails and oars. Many had 4 decks.
When negotiations didn't go their way,
(A.K.A. the Muslim sultan drove them away by closing the station)
...the Portuguese returned with much stronger ships and attacked, claiming Malacca for themselves.
Now Pires gets involved
Tomé Pires was described as being in good health and rich 'more than you can imagine' when he wrote home to family.
During his travels, he wrote detailed descriptions of plants, markets, and politics in maritime Asia, all in
So... how exactly did he describe such things?
To spread trade and diplomatic dominance of China from South-East Asia to Africa's east coast.
What it was carrying?
He was on the 4th fleet voyage.
Most likely Chinese or Polynesian
Sailing on the
Pires reached Malacca around June or July of 1512 CE
Medicinal plants were crucial to Asian trade, as it had been during Ma Huan's time.
Pepper, cardamom, edible camphor, benzoin, "cassia fistula", and "apothecary's lignaoes" we all still available from the Sumatra and Java.
East Islands had black benzoin, two kinds of camphor, cloves, nutmeg, mace, and white sandalwood.
> He was a mid class Muslim courier, living in Baghdad during the 900th century CE
During his travels, he received his wealth from many notable people.
Abraham was born into a Jewish family. His father was a rabbi, and Abraham was spreading his fathers teachings through trading.
Circa 1000 C.E
Was carrying raw materials & important goods from across Asia
He made observations on their cultures, possible trade items, climate, dress:
He traveled during the time of the Black Plague when Islam controlled most of Africa and both the Silk road and Indian Ocean Trade were flourishing.
Traveled along coast to major ports in China, Indonesia and parts of Middle East
He saw the connection between religion and trade, loved travel and had a passion for religious learning.
> Muslim empire gained a new ally with the Bulgars.
Thousands of pounds of tin.
Xuanzang grew up a young monk .
He entered monastery in Louyang at 13.
After years of meditation his brother and him fleed along the yellow river.
618 C.E. was not a place for peaceful monks
The two brothers witnessed the final collaspe of the Sui Dynasty.
Xuanzang described this time ; bleached bones in streets and burnt buidings.
Books were forgotten and war was most thought of .
2 brothers (Buddhist Monks), Left their Monastery in Luoyang, (eastern imperial capital. They traveled for five years to Chengdu.
When they got to Chengdu, X-zang left the monastery to teach on his own.
Glass & Beads
Around 1120 C.E. Abraham traveled to Cairo where he developed an important partnership with Mahmud Ibn Bandar. Mahmud was one of the most prominent traders in Aden.
Abraham gained a junior position beneath Bandar. Abraham was then encouraged to enter the spice trade. He was greatly fascinated by the idea of traveling with the spice trade. Pepper was a scarce spice, making it of great value. This is proved by the event in which Ibn Falden used pepper to bribe his was across the Eastern steppe.
Hindu & Buddhist ideas travleded routes for ovr 500 years
Long standing Buddhist tradition
Mined like tin
Essential to expression of courtly culture in Southeast Asia
*Many items were made out of tin
King Alaric demanded 3,000 pounds of pepper as a ransom of Rome. Pepper was a major part of bin Yiju's trading.
Importance of Tin
Different Colors would be sent to different regions
made by freezing molten liquid into a mold
Used to make mirrors in China
Mirrors in China
Bronze Buddha's in India
Used to make prayer items
Xuanzang's journey also
united India and China
, leading to an increase of correspondence and trade between the two countries
Xuanzang was not punished for leaving, in fact, he was begged to become a government official, but never did.
his brother still alive
, and still a monk
Xuanzang spent the rest of his life
teaching Buddhist texts to youth in the city of Chang'an
Effects of the Journey
Bin Yiju participated mainly in the Mediterranean, Red Seas, and the Indian Ocean trade routes. His trade route was heavily influenced by geography. His time was heavily influenced by family and religious ties.
A Depiction of
Promoted linkage and connections to other kingdoms.
Kushans, Afgans, and Mughals established empires .
The South Indian Chola built a navy and conquered the islands of: Sri Lanka, Java, and Sumarta.
Although big city capitals were impressive, the medium sized cities shouldn't be underestimated.
When empires fell, medium sized cities remained sources of demand, learning, and patronage.
Cities needed basic food fabric fuel and building materials. It was the elite of these cities that attracted the more sophistiacated trade goods of the Asian World.
Ignots used to make swords used by officers
Scrap bronze: an alloy of copper & zinc used to make cheaper products
Ruled both sides of the Himalayas.
The never ending cycle of
Gold rings were found on board, Showed signs of foreign wealth
Terra Cotta Shrines
Small Weighing scales
Buddhism and Islam rose and spread along Asia's trade route.
Luxury goods also spread ; silk, pearls, spices, and , medicines.
Showed presence of wealthy traders
Java grew the cotton
Xuanzang was not the first to travel west, so he
followed the path of Fa Xien and Zhi Yan
, who had taken similar journeys.
hired a guide
to take him and his entourage to the West
The Tang had put out a
warrant for Xuanzang's arrest
, but he continued on his journey
everywhere he went on his journey
Xuanzang's route spanned about
when all was said and done
Xuanzang learned more about
, and grew to love it again. He taught others what he had learned, bringing back
657 books and relics
Ibn Sina was arguably the most influential and significant philosopher of the Islamic tradition. He was also a physician, astronomer, chemist, geologist, psychologist, scholar, theologian, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist. This chapter focuses mainly on his life, between 1002-1021 C.E.
He was very intelligent from a young age. Baghdad was the center of education at the time, and he got his education in Bukhara, which was said to rival Baghdad in its glory. He started to surpass his teachers at age 14. He said in his biography that there was nothing that he didn't know by the age of 18.
Ibn Sina was born during the time of the Samanids, which is known as Islam's golden age. They were supporters of art and science. His father was a respected Islamic scholar. Since Ibn Sina came from an Islamic family, he was highly influenced by those beliefs. He also had a big influence, himself, on Islamic philosophy. Additionally, he believed in Neoplatonism (mystical philosophy), and was against rational thinking.
Ibn Sina wrote many philosophical and medical works, as well as an autobiography. His intellect was spread through his writings. He strayed from his opposition to rationality by starting to believe in rationality rather than a God who has predecided everything, and whom man will never understand.
Spices and medicines are still very important to Asia today.
Cinnamon,cardamom, nutmeg, cubeb, camphor, tabasheer, and cloves came from Southeast Asia.
India supplied colyrium, turmeric, pepper, cumin, areca nut, saffron, various sandalwoods, jasmine oil, aloes wood, asafetida, tamarind, caltrop, and myobolan.
China gave jujube, rhubarb, ginger, and galanga.
It even got to the point that islands grew nothing but cash crops.
They even imported food to eat since they dedicated all their land to cash crops. They stopped growing food and merely imported it.
Pires rote on the kingdoms as well and sent the reports back to the King, including reports of kingdoms he'd never visited, such as:
Arakan: economies based on rice production and taxation in labor more so than taxes.
and Pegu: based on irrigated rice and located either along a river or delta.
And, of course, he wrote of Malacca. The port city was based in a favorable harbor and location for transshipping between regions. Malacca was also very dependent on imports, growing virtually none of its own foot.
In Champa the nobles wore robes on their upper bodies and wrapped silk on heir lower halves. The headgear denoted rank. They wanted to trade for Chinese porcelain, dishes, silk, and beads. As a punishment you were beaten with a rattan stick, or for a major crime have your nose cut off.
Pires was far from unbiased.
He wrote of non-Christian kingdoms to be heathens and to be the enemy, while Christian kingdoms were allies everywhere and anywhere.
He didn't recognize local history, loyalty, or family rivalries wherever he went, Christian or not.
Such arrogance brought the Portuguese tragic fates.
Pires had a habit of describing Christians as powerful and great, while viewing Hindus and others as weak, shameful heathens.
(Although, sometimes, Pires appreciated heathen cultures)
In Java they had bare upper bodies and wore silk wrapped on their lower halves. All the men carried knives. This country had many prosperous ports, one being Tu-pan, made of Chinese people. The people of Java varied from Muslim, to Chinese, to Buddhists, or Hindus. Here, Ma Huan saw a man recite a story with a long rolled piece of paper filled with illustrations.
Biases didn't stop at religion.
"The man who has the most white men in his kingdom is the most powerful."
He called the Persians strong, because they are white.
The fleet captured a Chinese man who was acting as a pirate and robbing ships and valuables from passersby. They took him for execution at the Capital.
In an easy way to say it, Pires was cocky and arrogant. He believed the Chinese to be natural allies, but yet when they first contacted the Chinese, the Chinese tried to shoot down their ships, believing them to be pirates.
The Buddhist monks of Thailand were very similar to those in the home Country
>Traveling in a boat to Khwarizm, the group met up with a Muslim ruler, who tried to convince Ibn to not continue on with his journey, because it was a trap. The Muslim ruler believed that another alliance would be detrimental to his country, because he could be attacked from both the north and the south.
(past) In Malacca a King rose to power and separated from the ruling body to be recognized as a ruler of the city by the imperial fleet.
The current king had converted to Islam.
Often the fleet split at this point. Some were destined for Africa and others for India.
The Portuguese were impatient with the bureaucratic delays that occurred. The Chinese refused to repair their storm-damaged ship, months passing before the Portuguese demanded permission to Guangzhou.
Never receiving official permission, the Portuguese commander forced passage.
They were oblivious to Chinese customs. They announced their arrival with gun salutes and flag-flying, both of which weren't tolerated by Chinese officials.
It took quite a while to sort out, and it certainly didn't improve relations.
It also didn't help that the Portuguese didn't bring any traditional gifts.
>Either way, Ibn headed onward with his journey. He arrived in Jurjaniyah, to spend the cold, harsh winter there. Once the river thawed, the group left Ibn to continue on his own. They were too afraid to go beyond the protection of the Muslim confines.
For the people of Sri Lanka, a show of power was necessary. A previous fleet had decimated Sumatran and Sri Lankan towns of kings who had refused to give tribute. The current royalty was very devoted to China.
The commander offended the Chinese in many was, such as building a stone fort on sacred ground and hanging one of his crew on Chinese soil.
Ma Huan got the chance to visit Mecca.
(It's a big deal for Muslims.)
When the fleet returned home they faced some troubles. Taxes had risen and the fleet lost support at court. The literati opposed this travel and the royal eunuchs who supported the venture. When the emperor died, the literati influenced the new emperor and the fleets were ended after one last voyage. The ships were burnt and so were records and charts from past voyages.
For protection, Ibn joined a foreign caravan . He traveled with them, and they reached the Etrek camp. Whilst here, Ibn presented various items to Etrek, including money, musk, leather, cloth, clothing, presents for his wife, but most importantly silk robes.
There is a universal ceremony used all over the Asian world for presenting these robes. This ceremony shows honor and established political relations. Etrek actually violated this ceremony by just accepting the robes and he did not acknowledge the power of the muslim caliph.
Courtly and Political Culture
As places of noble culture the cities and courts had many similarities including symbols and ceremonies.
Honorific robing and presenting honored guests pan were to establish a connection between the giver and the receiver in front of an approving audience.
This politially tied together India and Southeast Asia.
Ibn's mission was based on political and religious ties that were spread across the entire Western part of the Asian world. Since politics and religious were closely related and intertwined with one another during this time period, it was common for caliphs to try and ally with other countries, although long journeys were uncommon.
A few weeks later, Almish wrote a letter to the Muslim caliph. The letter wanted to initiate the relationship Ibn's mission had been trying to accomplish, only this time, the Bulgars would be in charge.
Almish then discovered there was no money. Ibn Fadlan was accused of stealing and betraying the caliph. Almish refused his religious advice and revoked Ibn's ambassadorial status. Ibn went back home to Baghdad, deeming the mission a failure.
Over time, Ibn was allowed to leave the camp and at last, he reached his destination of the Bulgar camp. The negotiations between Ibn and Almish happened during protocol ceremonies. The first event to occur was the diplomatic banquet. During this time, Ibn presented Almish with gifts, but each one had an underlying political meaning only the king would understand. Next, Ibn read the letter from the caliph to Almish at the Friday prayers at the local mosque. The procedures went well until....
>Almish needed money to build his new fortress, so Ibn and his group waited for the money in the capital of Khurasan, which is Bulchara. Unfortunately, the money never arrived on time, so Ibn decide to keep going on the journey, letting the money come to him.
>The route was long and treacherous, due to the political and religious inflictions from other countries that would jeopardize their journey, forcing them to take a longer route through Western Persia.
2-Caliph and Caravan
> A Muslim Caliph requested him to be the head of an embassy for the Bulgars in 921, so he could teach the Bulgar King, Almish, about the Islamic religion.
>The group, including Ibn, an ambassador, a jurist, and a religious instructor, started towards the Bulgar community in June of 921.
Ignots & Artifacts: The Intan Shipwreck
Nobles and Notables :CH 6
Teaching institutions were found in cities from Spain to China; Ibn Buttuta stayed in schools during his early travels in the Middle East. He attended lectures as often as possible on Sahih; and was so committed that he was formally licensed to teach the book.
Ibn was one of the first people to document the breakout of the Black Plague in 1348 C.E. He witnessed thousands dying in a day, and people fasting for days trying to stay clear of the spread of the disease. By word of mouth he discovered that all of the Shaikhs he had known had died.
*Shaikh - Also known as Sheik : the leader of an Arab village or family
Philosopher and Physician
Ibn Sina, 1002-1021 CE
At age 26, Xuanzang
to find the center of Buddhism, even though it was forbidden.
Xuanzang and his entourage traveled for years through snow, mountains, and rivers
They followed the
They were invited by a king in present day
for their journey
, Xuanzang and his entourage eventually arrived at the
, which housed about 10,000 monks at the time
When the sultan of Bukhara came down with an illness, only Ibn Sina could cure him. He became the king's personal doctor, and also was privileged with access to his library. Life was great until the Samanids were conquered. The conquerors were not supportive of art and science, so he fled. The source of his travels throughout this chapter was mainly to flee control. He went to Hamadan, where he became friends with the leader there, despite being an enemy of the city. There was an uprising against him. When letters were found of him secretly corresponding with Esfahan, an enemy of Hamadan, he was put in jail for 4 years. After that, he escaped to Esfahan, and stayed there for the rest of his life.
Throughout his journey to Mecca, he joined several traveling caravans to explore many different areas and notable cities along the way. At one point he accompanied the Mongol King for ten days.
Blood and salt: Babur (1494-1526)
This chapter shows us how Babur lived and how he used his ancestors military tactics (feigned retreat, around-end swoop) to creating efficient armies. Beginning with the battle of Akhsi (1503) 400 soldiers were forced to spread out and flee, "losing" Fargana Valley. He then traveled to rule Kabul (roughly around Afghanistan) living the noble life.
Local officials of Guangzhou responded to the Portuguese commander's harsh threats by letting them depart for the capital. Almost 1,000 miles later in Nanjing, the emperor declined to see them and sent them on another 1,000 mile journey to Beijing.
Pires had already arrived in Beijing by the time the traveling emperor returned.
However, the commander was a short-tempered man that had no time for the slow customs of the Chinese. He demanded that Pires and the attendants be allowed to depart for Beijing.
This generally went well in spite of this. The Portuguese sent letters back praising the Chinese. They traded in Guangzhou for fourteen months and returned to Malacca with great wealth.
There was a relentless spirit of innovation throughout the Asian world that lead to the development of currencies and legal status for people.
States undertook major development projects such as:
The irrigation of land for growing rice and road building to connect the regions.
In warfare, kings understood the limits of armies based on regional loyalty.
successfully experimented with slave armies, armies based on religion, and prisoners as soldiers.
Science: hundreds of new plants arrived at courts.
Travel and Trade
Spices and medicines went from east to west and back again.
In the course of time, Chinese Buddhist monks went to India and Southeast Asia specifically to bring back useful plants.
Due to this trading, different crops became a part of different areas. Pepper moved from India to Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Mangoes began in Java thanks to Indian traders.
However, different climates didn't exactly take kindly to new plants, so not every attempt was successful.
Was a place of great empires and large capital cities.
Asia is a world of contrast from deserts to mountains, and rainforests to dry plains.
It was a variety of cultures and languages with many local religion as well as Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism.
However, what really made the Asian World unique was the networks.
The routes and networks connected a world from China across Central Asia, into India and the Middle East,North Africa, Spain and parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
Both religions address needs and recruited relatively simple personal commitment rather than ethnicity, region, language, or gender.
Building rest homes, establishing markets, and plantin trees along roads were all considered acts of religious merit.
Both Buddhism and Islam offered legal systems that regulated relations in their communities.
Competition between the two lead to profound and widespread questioning as well as discussions of mans place in society.
Relatively easy for men to move long distances in pursuit of position and employment.
Soldiers had equal opportunities for employment.
Traders moved most and operated with little interference from host states which often only had taxes and terms for trading.
If they were not satisfied they moved to another port, either as a community or just individually.
This limited state involvement meaning that piracy was a continuing problem.
Volume and variety affected much of the population of the great Asian World.
Trade mattered. Trade included the exotic, the prosaic, and every thing in between.
That's the 'Medicines' part.
That means that 'Misunderstandings' is next!
They still waited for permission to go to Beijing.
Pires had realized at this point that the Chinese typically held unasked for ambassadorial missions waiting for long periods of time.
(In Chinese ports, there had been rebellions by traders and complications among Chinese officials, and such a combinations led to massacres of foreign traders. There were no special laws that protected non-Chinese traders and many were tried before Chinese law and subsequently found guilty of violating it.)
(It was not a fun time to be a foreign trader, especially with disrespect to Chinese customs. Don't worry, this comes back to smack the Portuguese, whom were clueless of all this)
Question: "How do misunderstandings take play in all of this?"
Answer: "You see, it took quite a long time for word to spread from Malacca to Beijing. Ambassadors, letters, and news took a long time to travel across the country of China and the territories around it. The Portuguese didn't realize that letters detailing their conquest of Malacca,
a vassal of China
, were on their way to the imperial court.
Letters from Malacca, Beijing and Guangzhou arrived within days of Pires's meeting with the emperor.
All of the letters detailed complaints against the Portuguese, including the charge that the Portuguese had a habit of kidnapping local Chinese children and eating them.
Even the ambassadorial letter that Pires brought with him explained how the Portuguese refused to obey the rules of the imperial court.
That meant that the letter denied a centuries-old pattern of Chinese relations with the world.
Needless to say, the court was infuriated with Pires and his men.
At seemingly the worst time possible, the emperor died.
As the next emperor was just 14, the court controlled his actions.
Thus, Pires's diplomatic gifts were refused and his ambassadorial status was withdrawn.
Pires and his men were sent back to Guangzhou under the order that they were to remain locked up in prison.
Every Portuguese found on incoming ships were killed or captured. The Chinese coastal fleet fought with Portuguese warships from Malacca, refusing to let them in any more.
When Tome Pires refused to write a letter to the Portuguese in Malacca to return the city, the whole party was put in iron fetters.
All cash, trade goods (such as tortoise shells, cloth, and pepper) and the diplomatic gifts were seized by the Chinese.
On December 6, 1522 CE, the imperial court sentenced Pires and the rest of his men to death, summed up with, "Petty sea robbers sent by the great robber falsely; they come to spy on our country; let them die in the pillory as robbers."
In that September, the prisoners were executed, dismembered, and their body parts were displayed on stakes around the city. Each man's 'manhood' was placed in its mouth. Later, their bodies were thrown on dunghills.
Collective punishment was foreseeable.
The Portuguese seized a vassal of China, earning the title of pirates.
The Portuguese had no honor, according to Chinese. They had even claimed to have protection from a king on equal greatness of the emperor in foreign lands, an idea that offended the imperial court.
No other trading group had claimed to have such a powerful association between traders and king.
The Asian world noticed and commented on itself, especially in China and the Middle East.
Thousands of books were written on how life was lived and how it should be lived.
Poets reflected on the sorrows of love and the nature of beauty.
Artists pictured their world paying attention to the exotic.
The great Asian World was able to survive and thrive off of most day-to-day changes and disruptions.
There more innovation at the end of the period than at the beginning.
Empires and Cities
Within decades, Portugal's great ideas for controlling maritime Asia failed miserably.
They assumed all the wrong things: Asia had its own history, alliances, rivalries, and loyalties disregarding Christian-heathen views. The Asian world was far stronger than the Europeans first guessed.
A lesson that the Portuguese learned was a hard one. Kingdoms did not fall when trading cities were captured, like they had predicted. These kingdoms were based on
. Trade was important, but kingdoms did not crumble over its absence.
While their Asian attempt failed, the Portuguese fared better in western India, where Gujarati cotton production was overtaken by the Portuguese.
Forced monopoly failed. Asian merchants built faster, bigger ships that could sneak away from Portuguese and still carry on their own trade.
Asia was able to rebuild more ships and cities to replace what the Portuguese destroyed.
Alright, so Portugal failed.
But why mention it?
It resulted in a ban on foreign traders from China and it stirred up an arms race for higher military attack and defense power.
Within decades, most ports were fortified to prevent any repeat of the Portuguese conquests.
Remember the mention of spice trade?
Well, turns out, Portugal linked spice trade in Southeast Asia to Europe for the first time. Even though Portuguese traders made up merely one fourth of Asian trade, Portugal's ships brought over one-half of Europe's spice trade.
Even though this wealth was immense, the profit only went to the ship captain, the owner, and the king.
Because of that, many Portuguese left official service and became private traders in the Asian maritime world, therefore earning their own wealth.
And what happened to our main character here, Tome Pires?
He may or may not have been executed with the rest of his men.
Two letters were sent to Malacca from prison, but the messages are gibberish.
One may have said that he was held in a different prison and that he was executed, though no one can put a time and place on his death.
Although, a woman once came forward that she was Tome Pires's daughter...
but no one knew if she truly existed or not.
Babur was a descendent from Ghenghis Khan, and had inherited the throne in 1494. He was 18 when he captured his first city! Babur followed the unwritten code called the "Salt system" to increase numbers and diversity of his armies (gaining his army along the silk road). To "keep your salt" showed how loyal you were to your leader and that you honored him. Babur had captured Samarkand, making leaders and mongols giving him their service, but later "gave" it to the Uzbegs. Babur founded the Mughal empire.
Babur had the advantage of being born into a wealthy family and inheriting the Fargana Valley from the Kahns(Both of his uncles tried invading shortly after his fathers death), but he was also related Timur the Lame. He had conquered northern India, which had ended the Delhi Sultanate.
After a year in Mecca he joined Caravans again to fulfill his desires to "travel through the earth" and during a span of six years he honed his courtly skills in Persia, Constantinople, The Crimea,The Caucasus, and modern day Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.
Ibn Battuta also traveled along the east coast of Africa, finding that many of the main cities were also Muslim. He eventually made his way into central Asia, collecting robes and other treasures along the way, and found himself in Delhi, India.
European Colonial Conquest
In his travels Ibn married about 7 times, divorcing quickly as he was always leaving and traveling. He also bought many concubines, which are slave girls, to keep him company.
European's brought the notion of intertwining trade to Asia.
Were outsiders in the Asian World.
Europeans merged the ideas of a corporate trading company, loyalty to a throne, and a professional officer corps.
This prevented losing their conquests to military commanders.
Absence of understanding does not warrant absence of existence.
Ibn acquired many robes and other items of value on is journey. These ranged from things such as horses and supplies for travel, to noble robes and slaves. Most of the time these were gifts straight from sultans or kings themselves.
Anyone who denies the law of non-contradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned.
In spite of European conquests, the Asian world continued under colonial rule.
Slowly the colonial powers undercut local political processes and reoriented Asian World to better serve the home country.
Ibn shared the things he learned from his adventure with many people, including other merchants. As the trade route around this part of the world were thriving, he helped spread culture and religious views amongst the eastern hemisphere.