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Transcript of TWPSG7A
- In 1534 Jacques Cartier was told to go on a voyage of exploration by the King of France. He went to find two things: a shipping route to let French traders import silk and other products to Europe. He also went to find gems that were very precious and medals to make Europe rich.
- He was still exploring the St. Lawrence River in 1535-1536.
- On his last voyage, (1541-1542) he thought he found diamonds and loaded his boat with the. When he went back to France he realized it was quarts and that's why they started to sparkle. He failed to find a ship route and treasure.
- He never Explored for France again.
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN AKA "FATHER OF NEW FRANCE" (1574-1635)
THE NEWCOMERS (1663)
- 1530 France sent explorers to find land.
The St. Lawrence River was some of the land that was explored for France.
- Finally France decided to put colonies there. People from France started to live there permanently.
SOCIETY OF NEW FRANCE (1663-1763)
- The Civil Hierarchy of New France was a organization that had different levels that were kind of different from each other.
- The people that were highlighted in blue, lived in
and the people that were highlighted in yellow, lived in
- Even though the King, Viceroy, and the Ministry of the Navy did not live in New France, they still made important decisions about it.
- The King, Viceroy, and the Ministry of the Navy controlled the government.
- There were two different hierarchies: the civil hierarchy and the religious hierarchy.
- The intendant of New France made sure that people paid their taxes and that lawbreakers were punished.
- After Jean Talon (first intendant of New France) ended his position, he went back to France and he was named Count d'Orsainville by Louis XIV.
- Almost 65% of the total population of New France is in Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, and Île d'Orleans.
THE SEVEN YEARS WAR (1756-1763)
- The Seven Years War was between Britain and France.
- They fought all over the world.
- In 1758 the British captured Louisbourg and destroyed the barrier.
- General James Wolfe led a campaign to capture Quebec in 1759. They went close to Île d'Orléans and downriver from Quebec.
- In the war between Britain and France, the British soldiers stood shoulder to shoulder in three rows while each row fired then loaded their muskets.
- Both Wolfe and Montcalm died during the battle of the Plains of Abraham.
- In 1763 the Seven Years War finished and France and Britain signed a peace treaty in Paris.
THIRTEEN COLONIES (1750)
- The British had thirteen American Colonies that were along the east coast and south of Quebec.
- They were different from one another.
- In the northern areas they
had larger forests and more
- In the middle colonies they
had rich agriculture and lands for grains and vegetables.
- In the south their rice grew well and they had crops such as cotton.
- In every colony there was a different religion.
THE QUEBEC ACT (1774)
- Made major changes to the situation by creating French rights. Here are some of the changes:
- They developed the territory of Quebec just to
include Labrador, islands in the St. Lawrence
River, and the Ohio Valley.
- Created a council of representatives for them to
pass laws for the territory.
- It allowed Roman Catholics to be part of the
- Substituted the English Civil Law with the
French Civil Law. Due to that change, the
seigneural system was legal.
- British North Americans hated the changes but the Quebecois loved it.
JACQUES CARTIER (1491-1557)
- Was sent to find the same two things as Jacques Cartier (a shipping route to let French traders import silk and other products. To also find precious gems to make France rich).
- He explored the Coastal regions of North America.
- He was a "cartographer" (map maker) that made detailed maps of the Atlantic Coast, the waterways of the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries.
- Over the next 20 years Samuel de Champlain built a colony for France.
- By the time he died, he had built the basis for a successful colony for France.
THE TREATY OF FRANCE
- After the treaty, the two sides found a way to live with each other.
- Benjamin Franklin wanted the British to know that the United States was a independent nation and he was successful.
- They signed a second peace treaty. These are the major terms of the second peace treaty:
- Britain understood that America was an
- United States took control over the Ohio
- Americans were allowed to go fishing in the water
of Quebec and other British colonies.
- All of the British troops could no longer be in the
- The Loyalists could no longer be prosecuted.
- They were in assorted groups.
- They did all have much in common, but they were all against the American Revolution.These were some of the groups:
- Store owners and farmers
- Small landowners, former British soldiers, and people
hoping for religious tolerance
- Slack slaves and escaped black slaves.
- A lot of the Loyalists deserted their entire way of life just to move to British North America.
- As soon as the Loyalists arrived to Quebec, they quickly took the free land and built communities. They were shocked from the differences from their new home and their houses in the United States. These were some of the differences:
- The legal systems
- Church support
- The government
- They also brought the townships system from America.
- Finally the British agreed to change the governments system and the laws in Quebec.
THE WAR OF 1812
- In 1779 Britain and France went to war.
- Napolean Bonapart (French ruler) wanted to challenge Britain's position as the leading military power in the world.
- The battles between them were called 'The Napoleonic Wars'
- The war continued until 1815.
- The two countries tried to weaken each other by disrupting the trades.
- Britain and France both tried to stop each other from trading with other countries.
- Britain knew that the Americans always supported France in the Napoleonic War so he captured them and forced them to work on British warships.
- The War of 1812 was fought in many parts of land such as Naval Battles on the Great Lakes and along the Atlantic Coast.
- At the beginning of the war, Brock commanded the British forces in Upper Canada to stop the Americans before they could get a good start.
- These were some of the effects that the War of 1812 had on British North America:
- Agriculture was declined because most farmers had to fight in the Militia.
- Smaller harvests and food supply was threatened.
- Increase of demand for materials for the troops.
- Promoted unity as the people from the France and England came together to resist their enemy ( United States ).
- British North America's confidence grew.
SIR ISAAC BROCK (1769-1812)
- Born in 1769 on a small island of Guernsey.
- He was the 8th son in the family.
At the age of 15, he joined the army and was a soldiers for the rest of his life.
- He served in the West Indies and in Europe
- In 1802 he built up Quebec City's defenses.
- In 1810 Brock was in command of the defenses of Montreal.
- Later that year, Brock took charge of the whole colony's defense.
- In 1812 Brock and Tecumseh attacked Detroit and the Americans surrendered.
- He died as a hero in a battle.
- He was intelligent and energetic.
- He fought for Britain in other parts of the world.
- Without Brock, Upper Canada might have become part of the United States in the War of 1812.
- He was the chief of the Shawnee people.
- His father was killed in 1774.
- In the American Revolution, many of the Shawnee villages were destroyed by the American soldiers.
- In 1809 the First Nations People sold 10 000 squared kilometers of land to the United States. Tecumseh was against this deal.
- He got angrier at the americans in 1811 because more Shawnee villages were getting destroyed, so he decided to make an alliance with Britain.
- Intelligent trader.
- Predicted that his people would suffer because of the settlers.
- Their way of life changed forever because of Tecumseh.
Bain, Colin M. Pearson Canadian history 7. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada., (2008).
THE REBELLIONS OF 1837-1838
A lot of the citizens of Lower and Upper Canada were not happy in the early 1830s.
- The governments were undemocratic.
- In that time it was very hard for farmers because the wheat prices were declined so they had to change the type of crops they grew.
- The situation was made even worse in Lower Canada because of the dissatisfaction with the seigneurial system.
- The governments of Upper and Lower Canada did agree with each other so it made it more difficult to make improvements.
- By late 1837, Mackenzie gave up on doing a peaceful reform.
- Mackenzie's supporters began to gather at Montgomery's Tavern. His troops were a mix farmers, workers, and unemployed people. They could have attacked but Mackenzie hesitated to go for three days. That gave Lieutenant-Governor Bond Head more time to organize his troops.
- They met Lieutenant-Governor Bond Head's troops and in less than a few minutes all of Mackenzie's supporters were down.