**Conclusion**

**Thank you for your attention!**

And one more thing...

Understanding

Binary Adder Subtractor

8-Bit Switched Adder

8-Bit Adder/Subtractor

Analog to Digital Converter

When one gate closes

another gate opens...

**TI-8 Creators**

Michael Dutra- Third year mechanical engineering student

Trent Canales- Second year

mechaincal engineering student

Michael Parker- Second year

mechaincal engineering student

Logic gates and logic chip functions

Foundation of computing operations

Binary numbering system and math

Digital age

**Abstract**

**Introduction**

8-Bit switched adder -LED display

8-Bit switched adder/subtractor -LED display

8-Bit analog adder/subtractor -LED display

8-Bit analog adder/subtractor -7 segment display

**EXPERIMENT**

8-Bit switched adder

Theory

Procedure

Results

Binary Theory

Theory

Procedure

Results

Switched inputs

7483 adder chip

Input LEDs

Output LEDs

Operation of the adder

7+1=8

3+2=5

Base 2 method of counting; uses 0 and 1

Computers: symbolizes on and off commands

1 digit = 1 bit; 8 bits = 1 byte

How binary counting works

Binary Counting

101

Binary/Decimal Reference

Binary/Decimal Conversion

Theory

Procedure

Results

Theory

Procedure

Results

Why analog to digital?

How it works

Expected results

Construction of the circuit

Important things to know

Example of Analog to digital converter operation

-Changing voltage results in changing output number

8-bit Adder subtractor with 7 segment display

Bread Board

Procedure

Procedure

Theory

Results

Procedure

Theory:

Seven Segment Displays

Internal wiring of displays

Common anode vs cathode

Seven segment decimal counting

Logic Gates

Purpose- Logic Gates allow circuits to make logical decisions that produce one output when receiving one or more inputs.

Basic Gates- Basic gates include OR, AND, and NOT gates.

Universal Gates- Universal gates include NAND, NOR, and X-OR gates.

Logic Gates

AND GATE -The AND gate performs logical multiplication, known as the AND function. The output is high only when both inputs are high. If either or both inputs are low then the output is low.

OR GATE – The OR gate performs logical addition, known as the OR function. The output is high when one or both inputs are high. The output is low only when both inputs are low.

X-OR GATE – The output is high when any one of the inputs is high. The output is low when both inputs are low, or both inputs are high.

Logic Gates

X-OR GATE -

AND GATE –

OR GATE –

Full Adder

Combining Adders

Full Adder: IC 7483

8-bit Adder

Chips

Wiring Tools

Circuit Elements

Foundation

Procedure:

Seven Segment Displays

Relocation of LEDs

Installed decoder chips and seven segment displays

-LEDs remained upon the addition of seven segment displays for clarity

Theory cont.

Addition of two eight bit numbers

-BCD

-Third display necessary

complete nine bit solution

Results:

Seven Segment Display

Example comparing binary and decimal input and outputs

Theory:

Analog to Digital

Procedure:

Analog to Digital

-Analog and digital ground

-Chip reset

-Nothing left floating

Results:

Analog to Digital

Theory:

Subtractor

Performed bit pair to bit pair from right.

Result < 0, must ‘borrow’

Additional XOR Gate

Expectations: 1 number; difference of inputs

Carry Light Significance

Theory (Cont.)

Subtractor Schematic

Procedure:

Subtractor

Tap/Wire in XOR chip #7486

Integrate Carry Connections

Results:

Subtractor

3 - 2 = 1*

7 - 1 = 6*

*Note: Answer considers 9th Light

Adapted Procedure:

ADC Subtractor

Optimization: Time and Materials

Divide and conquer

Jump from switched to analog inputs

Theory:

Theory:

Theory:

Theory:

Theory:

Theory:

Theory:

Procedure: