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OCR SOCIOLOGY G673 (condensed notes)
Transcript of OCR SOCIOLOGY G673 (condensed notes)
Control and Prevention
Ethnic minorities are over-represented in OCS and the prison population.
Phillips and Bowling:
Black community is subject to
oppressive military style policing.
underpins the decision to stop and search.
Young African-Caribbeans experience
because of blocked oppurtunities to material success, failing inner-city schools, unemployment and racism.
society creates the potential for criminal behaviour.
Class of inequalities
- W/c crime is a realistic response.
More likely a crime is to be committed by a high class person the less likely it is to be classed a criminal offence.
Capitalist state is reluctant to pass laws that regulate the activities of businesses or threaten profitability.
Victim survey's attempt to gain better knowledge/understanding of the reality of crime (compared to OCS)
Hanmer + Saunders:
20% of women are sexually assaulted but have not reported the crime.
Distorted picture of women's experiences.
Gender-powered relationships, female victims of domestic abuse unable to leave.
Social construction and relativity of deviance. The
Primary (not labeled doesn't affect identity) and secondary (result of labeling stigmatises people) deviance.
The powerful define crime and label those who fail to conform as criminals.
Ackers: (critical of labeling theory)
Act more important than societies reaction. Don't need a label to know what is wrong.
People are naturally inclined to criminal behaviour if they can gain or won't get caught.
Welfare state responsible for underclass, no need to work at they are dependent on the state.
Rational choice: weigh up costs and benefits before committing crime.
Rex + Tomlinson:
Reject idea of underclass, poverty is out of their control they do not choose to be unemployed and commit crime.
OCS: indicates people from w/c background are more likely to commit crime.
Sumner et al:
Money/celebrity status main source of status. 'Rich get richer and poor get poorer'.
Poorer people may turn to street robbery to express resentment at a lack of opportunity.
W/c delinquency is the result of young people exaggerating already deviant w/c values, compensating for a lack of status and boredom.
The poor/powerless commit crime as a way of protesting against inequalities.
Effects of w/c crime on w/c victims is not taken seriously.
Skinhead style is a symbolic reaction to decline of w/c-masculinity.
(media) black criminals robbed white victims.
: divide and rule the potentially troublesome w/c.
Aim to explain why crime is committed by people in urban areas.
Lea + Young:
Crime can only be reduced with assistance from the community.
Criticises the government for not tackling the basic inequalities that probably fuel most crime.
Left realists draw attention to the brutal reality of inner-city street crimes.
OCS: Crime isn't evenly distributed (higher in urban areas, inner city, and council estates.
BCS: people who live in rural areas worry less about crime.
Night time economy
(Manchester), 75% of violent incidents happen between 9pm and 3am with only about 30 police to control it, main responsibility with bouncers.
Baldwin + Bottoms:
theory), law abiding people move away from crime. If anti-social outweigh respectable the area has
and is viewd as a problem.
Marshal et al:
Zone of transition
Shaw + McKay
) people will commit crime because of social problems such as unemployment/poverty/poor mental health/ drugs/alcohol abuse.
Women commit less crime because they conform to social controls.
Females conform because
imposes control over their behaviour.
W/c females commit crimes because they lack the 4 controls preventing most people committing crime.
As society becomes less patriarchal female crime will rise.
OCS suggests 50% of crime is committed by 14-18 year olds.
Thornton et al:
Mass media creates
around the activities of the young.
The older the person gets the more
they have preventing them from committing crime.
The powerful label the young as deviant, police act on behalf of the powerful.
Strategies for the control and prevention of crime generally come from right and left realism.
50% of prisoners have committed minor offenses and prison is damaging.
Feely + Simon:
Identify a more disturbing
culture of control-acturalism
; agencies identify unruly groups and act against them.
Felson + Clarke:
Situational crime prevention strategies displace crime.
OCS are a social construction. Doesn't account for all crime - Dark figure of crime (hidden iceberg).
Grey et al:
Stop and search is based on stereotypical assumptions.
Black youths are 17% more likely to get a prison sentence than white youths for the same offense.
Bowling et al:
Racial profiling by some officers is crucial in their decision to stop and search.
Focuses on why young w/c juvenile delinquents commit crime.
Cloward + Ohlin:
, mirrors a legitimate business.
, based on territorial violence.
, unable to join first 2 so turn to drug use and shoplifting.
Matza (critical of subcultural theory):
Many people face
but don't commit crime, few refer to subculture when justifying behaviour, and the role of the police is neglected.
Delinquency is caused by the strain between cultural goals and the means of achieving them.
: Social structure and crime is caused by society.
. Crime functions for societies benefit; positive social change,
, community solidarity and reassurance society is functioning.
, IC3R's (Innovation, Conformity, Ritualism, Retreatism, Rebellion).