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OCR SOCIOLOGY G673 (condensed notes)

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Annie Davey

on 12 June 2015

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Transcript of OCR SOCIOLOGY G673 (condensed notes)

G673 Crime and Deviance
OCS
Functionalism
Subcultural theory
Control and Prevention
Marxism
Neo-Marxism
Interactionist
Left realist
Right realist
Feminist
Ethnicity
Social Class
Geographical location
Age
BCS
Ethnic minorities are over-represented in OCS and the prison population.
Phillips and Bowling:
Black community is subject to
oppressive military style policing.
Holdaway:
'Canteen culture'
underpins the decision to stop and search.
Cashmore:
Young African-Caribbeans experience
'anomie'
because of blocked oppurtunities to material success, failing inner-city schools, unemployment and racism.
Nature/Organisation of
capitalist
society creates the potential for criminal behaviour.
Gordon:
Class of inequalities
- W/c crime is a realistic response.
Reiman:
More likely a crime is to be committed by a high class person the less likely it is to be classed a criminal offence.
Snider:
Capitalist state is reluctant to pass laws that regulate the activities of businesses or threaten profitability.
Victim survey's attempt to gain better knowledge/understanding of the reality of crime (compared to OCS)
Hanmer + Saunders:
20% of women are sexually assaulted but have not reported the crime.
Graham:
Distorted picture of women's experiences.
Walklate:
Gender-powered relationships, female victims of domestic abuse unable to leave.
Social construction and relativity of deviance. The
Labeling Theory
.
Lemert:

Primary (not labeled doesn't affect identity) and secondary (result of labeling stigmatises people) deviance.
Becker:
The powerful define crime and label those who fail to conform as criminals.
Ackers: (critical of labeling theory)
Act more important than societies reaction. Don't need a label to know what is wrong.
People are naturally inclined to criminal behaviour if they can gain or won't get caught.
Marsland:
Welfare state responsible for underclass, no need to work at they are dependent on the state.
Hirschi:
Rational choice: weigh up costs and benefits before committing crime.
Rex + Tomlinson:
Reject idea of underclass, poverty is out of their control they do not choose to be unemployed and commit crime.
OCS: indicates people from w/c background are more likely to commit crime.
Sumner et al:
Money/celebrity status main source of status. 'Rich get richer and poor get poorer'.
Reiner:
Poorer people may turn to street robbery to express resentment at a lack of opportunity.
Miller:
W/c delinquency is the result of young people exaggerating already deviant w/c values, compensating for a lack of status and boredom.
The poor/powerless commit crime as a way of protesting against inequalities.
Taylor:
Effects of w/c crime on w/c victims is not taken seriously.
Cohen:
Skinhead style is a symbolic reaction to decline of w/c-masculinity.
Hall:
'Muggings'
(media) black criminals robbed white victims.
Moral panics
: divide and rule the potentially troublesome w/c.
Aim to explain why crime is committed by people in urban areas.
Lea + Young:
1.
Relative deprivation

2.
Marginalisation
3.
Subculture
Crime can only be reduced with assistance from the community.
Young:
Criticises the government for not tackling the basic inequalities that probably fuel most crime.
Hughes:
Left realists draw attention to the brutal reality of inner-city street crimes.
OCS: Crime isn't evenly distributed (higher in urban areas, inner city, and council estates.
BCS: people who live in rural areas worry less about crime.
Hobbs:
Night time economy
(Manchester), 75% of violent incidents happen between 9pm and 3am with only about 30 police to control it, main responsibility with bouncers.
Baldwin + Bottoms:
'Tipping'
(
'Broken window'
theory), law abiding people move away from crime. If anti-social outweigh respectable the area has
'tipped'
and is viewd as a problem.
Marshal et al:
Zone of transition
(
Shaw + McKay
) people will commit crime because of social problems such as unemployment/poverty/poor mental health/ drugs/alcohol abuse.
Women commit less crime because they conform to social controls.
Heidensohn:
Females conform because
patriarchal society
imposes control over their behaviour.
Carlen:
W/c females commit crimes because they lack the 4 controls preventing most people committing crime.
Adler:
As society becomes less patriarchal female crime will rise.
OCS suggests 50% of crime is committed by 14-18 year olds.
Thornton et al:
Mass media creates
moral panics
around the activities of the young.
HIrschi:
The older the person gets the more
controls
they have preventing them from committing crime.
Becker:
The powerful label the young as deviant, police act on behalf of the powerful.
Strategies for the control and prevention of crime generally come from right and left realism.
Matthew:
50% of prisoners have committed minor offenses and prison is damaging.
Feely + Simon:
Identify a more disturbing
culture of control-acturalism
; agencies identify unruly groups and act against them.
Felson + Clarke:
Situational crime prevention strategies displace crime.
OCS are a social construction. Doesn't account for all crime - Dark figure of crime (hidden iceberg).
Grey et al:
Stop and search is based on stereotypical assumptions.
Hoods:
Black youths are 17% more likely to get a prison sentence than white youths for the same offense.
Bowling et al:
Racial profiling by some officers is crucial in their decision to stop and search.
Focuses on why young w/c juvenile delinquents commit crime.
Cloward + Ohlin:
1.
Crime subculture
, mirrors a legitimate business.
2.
Conflict subculture
, based on territorial violence.
3.
Retreatist subculture
, unable to join first 2 so turn to drug use and shoplifting.
Matza (critical of subcultural theory):
Many people face
status frustration
but don't commit crime, few refer to subculture when justifying behaviour, and the role of the police is neglected.
Cohen:
Delinquency is caused by the strain between cultural goals and the means of achieving them.
Structuralist theory
: Social structure and crime is caused by society.
Durkheim:
Value consensus
. Crime functions for societies benefit; positive social change,
safety valve
, community solidarity and reassurance society is functioning.
Merton:
Strain theory
, IC3R's (Innovation, Conformity, Ritualism, Retreatism, Rebellion).
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