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Transcendentalism

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Hannah Pothast

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Transcendentalism

Emily Dickinson
"Margaret Fuller." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 01 May 2015.
"What Literary Period Does Emily Dickinson Belong In?"
Emily Dickinson
. n.p., n.d. Web. 30 April 2015.
"Emily Dickinson and Her Contemporaries"
UPNE
. n.p., April 2015. Web. 4 May 2015.
"Emily Dickinson's Life"
english.illinois.edu
. Oxford University Press. 2000. Web. 5 May 2015.
"Characteristics of Transcendentalism." np., nd. Web. 02 May 2015.
"Henry David Thoreau." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 09 May 2015.


Dickinson contributed works focused on transcendentalist ideals.
Some works including "Tis So Much Joy" reflect Modernist ideas of social conformity and economic progression
Louisa May Alcott, Helen Hunt Jackson, Lydia Sigourney contemporaries of Dickinson.
Dickinson strongly influenced by writers John Keats & Robert Browning
King James translation of the Bible
Emily Dickinson
23 May 1810 - 19 July 1850
America's first true feminist
Influence on American women and social reform
Moved to Jamaica Plain in Boston in 1840, started conducting famous "Conversations" - transcendentalist views
Went on from 1840-1844
Companions: Emerson, Thoreau, Peabody sisters, Alcotts, Horace Greeley, Carlyle, Mazzini
Margaret Fuller
Margaret Fuller cont.
What is "transcendentalism"?
Religious & philosophical movement
Developed during late 1820's and 30's
Eastern region of US
Against state of spirituality and state of intellectualism at Harvard University

What is Transcendentalism?
Transcendentalist Literature
Emily Dickinson
Joined Ralph Waldo Emerson and founded
The Dial
in 1840 - devoted to transcendentalist views
Summer on the Lakes
(1844) - trip through Midwest; led to invitation from Horace Greeley to be literary critic at NY tribune same year
Natural beauty of West, sympathy for plight of Indians
Feminist classic:
Women in the Nineteenth Century
(1845)
Criticism of "Anti-Christ" sentiments
Defiance of God
Themes of death, grief, and nature most prominent in Dickinson's work
Strong Christian religion of the time influenced Dickinson's work
Work influenced later writers Elizabeth Bishop and Adrienne Rich
Margaret Fuller cont.
1846 - went to Europe as foreign correspondant for The Tribune
Regarded as serious intellectual in France
Wrote many articles about letters and art
1847 - Met Giovanni Angelo in Italy, had son and married next year
1848 - Roman Revolution - Fuller and Angelo flee to Florence in 1849
Sailed for US, ship sank in a storm within sight of land at Fire Island, NY. Bodies never found

Horace Greeley
Emerson
Thoreau
Margaret Fuller cont.
1836-37 - Taught at Bronson Alcott in Boston
Challenged boundaries of education
Attended male-only Harvard - continued studies of reading and languages
Critics of Fuller:
Forceful personality, unpredictable emotions
Reputation suffered: Hawthorne based portrayal his character Zenobia in
The Blithedale Romance
on Fuller
William Henry Channing, James Freeman Clark, and Emerson produced
Memoirs
- misenterprits Fuller by revising passages from her letters and diaries and her works written for publication
Influenced by romanticism
feminism and communal living
2. Based on the idea that in order to understand the nature of reality, one must first examine and analyze the reasoning process that governs the nature of experience.
WORKS CITED
Ideals of
Transcendentalism
1. Believed in living closer to nature
2. Believed in the dignity of manual labor
3. Emphasized the need for intellectual companions
and interests and spiritual living
4. Considered man's relationship to God a personal
matter
5. Posited the essential divinity of man
6. Proposed self-trust, self-reliance and individualism
7. Encouraged reform
(to awaken and regenerate the spirit)

Emily Dickinson is read today primarily because of her major influence on feminist writers and critics.
Fierce defiance of literary, political, and social authority
Dickinson's letters to friends and associates are still read to reflect the life she actually lived.
Effects of living in a house full of politically dominant males
Presented by Ashley Burcham, Haylee Vroman, and Hannah Pothast
Henry David Thoreau
Concord, MA - July 1817
Often called to drive cows from grazing - developed an early love of solitutde and communion with nature
Educated at Harvard
extra science and four languages
1837 - graduated and took over Concord Academy, introducing progressive teaching styles
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The Dial
- Transcendentalist magazine
Henry David Thoreau
1845 - Walden Pond
Sought a simpler way of life
Avoided misery
Light schedule allowed time to devote to philosophical and literary interests
A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
1849 - boating trip with his brother
Walden Pond Experiment
Henry David Thoreau
1849 - "Civil Disobedience"
Very strong political views and believed in acting on ones individual consience and not blindly following laws and government policy
Martin Luther King Jr. and Gandhi
1854 -
Walden; or Life in the Woods
Popular later
Naturalists, environmentalists, and writers
Henry David Thoreau
House sat for Emerson
continued writing observations on plants and wildlife
Concord, Maine, Cape Cod
1854 -
Slavery in Massechusetts
Remained a devoted abolitionist
Captain John Brown
A Plea for Capt. John Brown
Died May 6 1862
Henry David Thoreau
"Original Thinker"
"A man of simple tastes, hardy habits, and preternatural powers of observation."
Why is Thoreau still read?
relevant, relatable
government = revolutionary
nature = radical
Walden offers an interesting antidote to living in the modern day rat race
Full transcript