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Physiological Basis of Hunger

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Hemanth Ramireddy

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Physiological Basis of Hunger

Physiological Basis of Hunger Leptin Other Types of Hormones Hormones Disorders & Deficiencies The Brain AP Psychology, Period 1 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus helps us coordinate chemicals to help regulate what we eat The body sends out neurotransmitters to indicate that it needs food. The Y-neurotransmitter is a major neurotransmitter. Lateral Hypothalamus: Region of the brain associated with hunger recognition. Ventromedial Hypothalamus: Region involved with the recognition of the feeling of fullness. Paraventricular Hypothalamus: Region involved with the regulation of hunger. Ghrelin released in stomach and sends signal to the brain
Von Gierke's Disease Hyperthyroidism it influences metabolism of fat tissue Bulimia Nervosa It increases a person's appetite the levels increase rapidly before eating and increases if one under eats the levels decreases after 3 hours
and decrease if you over eat. levels high in children with anorexia and low in children with obesity Decreases appetite Obesity the more fat the more leptin, however levels vary depending on sleeping and eating patterns Experiments on Leptin two new studies in mice show that the hormone works by actually rewiring the neural circuits in the brain. studies found that mice without the leptin gene have more connections coming into neurons affected by leptin than do other mice. The result was more circuits that increase appetite—and fat mice. Insulin & Glucagon Increases glucose level Decreases glucose level Orexin Increases appetite (Hypothalamus) Peptide YY Digestive tract hormone, decreases appetite Cholecystokinin inhibits the stomach, and slows down digestion (gallbladder) Anorexia Nervosa Physiological causes aren’t clear, but there are findings showing a connection with serotonin and norepinephrine (Serotonin is linked to eating regulation) Twin research suggests there may be a genetic aspect overproduction of thyroxine, which regulates metabolism and speeds up metabolic rate inherited disease that causes low blood sugar Diabetes Type 1 Type 2 Deficiencies (in children) Cretinism Anemia Protein energy undernutrition Deficiencies in adults eating disorder involving binge eating followed by a purging of the food
Caused by environmental, psychological, and biological factors
Genetic factors may create a predisposition toward eating disorders Many researchers believe that physiological changes are a response to abnormal eating patterns, and these physiological changes perpetuate eating irregularities
Physiological aspects of female adolescence may be a contributing factor
Can be caused biologically
Studies show twins who grew up apart still weigh about the same
Adopted children’s weights are similar to their biological parents
Genetics is a major cause somewhere between 40-70% of variation in body mass is genetic
Strongly associated with diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and some cancers
Twin research suggests there may be a genetic aspect
a person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience an increase in thirst and hunger
The body does not produce insulin It is usually developed before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years
Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
Patients need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life and must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.
The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance) Approximately 90% of worldwide cases are type 2
Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels
The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older.
Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
severe iodine deficiency that results in retardation/stunted growth
iron deficiency that can lead to not being able to breathe properly and tire easily wasting of fat and muscle caused by severe malnutrition can lead to chronic illnesses (hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, increased risk of diabetes)
Genetic Inheritance pattern of Von Gierke's Disease Hyper functioning thyroid Genetics is a major cause. Somewhere between 40-70% of variation in body mass is genetic
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