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Graphene and Fishing Line Muscles

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Stephen Smith

on 12 April 2014

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Transcript of Graphene and Fishing Line Muscles

Graphene and Fishing Line Muscles
Graphene! Who am I?
Graphene is a single-layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a repeating pattern of hexigons (Brewster).

Graphene is only two-dimensional, a property previous believed impossible.

Oh yeah, Graphene is also the strongest material known to man!
Chemical Make-Up!
6 Carbons all interlinking, One Layer.
Simple. Powerful.
So Where Did Graphene Come From?
Carbon! Carbon takes many forms, from graphite in your pencil to beautiful wedding diamonds.

Graphene was discovered by Andre Geim and a team of his at the University of Manchester and published their works in 2004.

Andre used tape to peel away layers of graphite until he reached 10 layers of graphene. Revised methods and technology later produced the now famous one layer of graphene.
Why Does Graphene Matter?
As mentioned earlier, it is the strongest material in the world.

It is also super conductive. It can move electrons much faster than copper, silicon, and many other standard conductors.

Graphene is flexible and stretchable, and can be molded to a variety of shapes and sizes.

It is transparent, and you can see through it without any glares.
Proposed Applications for Graphene
Cellphones! Because of its strength, conductivity, flexibility, and transparency Samsung has already bought out a ton of the rights to use this new substance.

Internet Cables! Its conductivity and strength could boost internet speeds immensely.

Solar Cells! Scientist believe that graphene will make a much semi-conductor than silicon

Everything! Really anything mechanical or electric can benefit from Graphene
Stephen Smith and Sordum Ndam
The Dark Side of Graphene
It is not been fully tested and developed enough to be put into the mass market.

There could be environmental hazards in the waste caused by production of graphene and the disposal of it.

As a semiconductor the electricity can be turned on, but not off. This is an issue, and researches are looking to find ways to fix this. One method is by adding impurities.

Too expensive since the production of it has not been fine tuned. It is fairly new compared to silicon, which has been around for over 200 years.
Sewing thread and Fishing Line Muscles! What am I?
Polyethylene fishing line and sewing thread can be cheaply converted to powerful artificial muscles
How Do you Make Me? Are we talking Cyborgs here?
The fishing line and sewing thread are easily transformed by twist insertion to provide fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, long-life tensile and torsional muscles
Who is
Who Made Me?
U.S. researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas with colleagues from Australia, Canada, China, South Korea and Turkey

AKA Really Smart Scientists (not us unfortunately, labs were hard enough)
Some Facts About These Fishing Line Muscles
-lifts loads over 100 times heavier than human muscle of the same length/weight

-generate 5.3 kilowatts (7.1 horsepower) of mechanical work per kilogram of muscle weight, which is similar to a jet engine's

-powered thermally by temperature changes, which can be produced electrically, by the absorption of light or by the chemical reaction of fuels

-compared to natural muscles, which contract by only about 20%, these new muscles can contract by about 50% of their length

-pores reversibly open and close with changes in temperature

-enough torsional power to spin a heavy rotor more than 10 000 revolutions per minute when heated
So..What are we going to do with these super muscles?
Smart buildings with windows that automatically open and close in response to temperature changes

Give life to more nuanced facial expressions in humanoid robots who are companions to the elderly

Prosthetic limbs and wearable exoskeletons

Superhuman strength (cyborgs!)

Dexterous capabilities for minimally invasive robotic microsurgery

Devices for communicating the sense of touch from sensors on a remote robotic hand to a human hand

Power miniature “laboratories on a chip"
Cyborgs are going to take over the world.
Connections Between Graphene and Fishing Line Muscles
Both of these have the potential to strengthen infrastructure and technology.

Both are made from seemingly common materials in our world, that have just been modified to make something super!

Both are still in the developmental stages, but will hopefully be coming to a cellphone or home near you for commercial use.

Both will give rise to a cyborg army that is going to take over the world. THE FUTURE
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