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History of Media

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Alika Brammer

on 6 December 2011

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Transcript of History of Media

Printing Press
US Postal Service
Pony Express
Alphabet- 2,000 BCE
Writing- 5,000 BCE
Chinese and Japanese Block Prints

Material that the ancient world used for communications were parchment, clay, and stone, which advanced to papyrus and paper.

The heavy materials that the Assyrians used led to cultural bias towards time and towards religious organizations.

Intellectual Monopoly of medieval monks based on parchment was undermined by paper and print
“Monopoly power over writing” by Egyptians priests in the age of hydrographs has been subverted by the Greeks and their alphabet

“Greek civilization was the reflection of the power of the spoken word” - Harold Innes, a Canadian historian.

Writing let civilizations record important documents, agreements and history of their civilization.
1450 Johannes Gutenberg

1645 The Oldest Newspaper still published
is the Sweden Ordinari Poft (which is now only found on the internet )
News of who was coming and going from the ports. Publishers: The Swedish Court

1690 First Newspaper in the USA
Boston Ma. Publick Occurrence
People would tell the publisher what to print
If the authors would supply paper, the publisher was willing to print the author book because paper was expensive. Publisher= Individual

1764 advertisement on the right-hand side of the Newspapers (becomes constitute)

" Like the framework of the English copyrights from which it derived, the American system had two consequences of symmetrical importance it created private rights to publish work (though the original act mentioned only maps, charts and books) and at the same time provided for a legal public domain consisting of work on which copyright has lapsed or to which it had never applied.” (Starr 115.)

Copyright Law of 1790 the authors or proprietors of “ maps, charts and books” could have “ the sole right and liberty” to such works weather or not procedural requirements involving of copies of government and public notice of copyright.

The bible began to be printed in to the everyday language, so that most people could read. The media becomes accessible to higher society. An education became important, high literacy rates in some areas, allowed more people to be able to read newspapers.
High literacy rates in MA and other European countries because people need to be able to read the bible in their language. Need to be able to read and sign contracts to get higher in their business. America thought that schools were important by the 19th Century Women, young readers, working class, middle class, some free slaves and new immigrants could read.
1775 Benjamin Franklin appointed by the Continental Congress
In the early colonial times only a few colonists needed to send mail to each other.
More likely to send mail to England which would take months
No formal post offices
mail were left in taverns and inns
Franklin created efficient routes to cut delivery time in half between Philadelphia and New York.
Franklin developed a rate depending on the distance and weight of the mail
1789 Samuel Osgood was the first postmaster of the United States
1789 there were about 75 post offices in the country
1847 the first use of postal stamps
1918 Airmail began
1963 Zip codes began being used
1994 the USPS Internet site launched

Now there are over 40,000 post offices and over 212 billion pieces of mail each year
Largest civilian employer with over 700,000 employees who handle over 44% of the world’s letters.

The current problem with the USPS is that it has turned into a broadcast because now people are receiving junk mail that the people do not sign up for. Companies send out mail to surrounding areas to promote their business in one way or another.

People could write letters and send packages from different part of the country, instead of traveling across the country. The USPS sent mail to every part of the country, so it is convenient for people who want to send a letter or package to a rural town.
1860 under the name of the Central Overland Califonia and Pike Peak Express Company

St . Joseph Missouri becomes the eastern terminus because it is connected to the east by the railroad

Sacramento California becomes the western terminus

Set up a route from Missouri thought Kansas
Ben Ficklin becomes the superintendant of this route.
The route extended through Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming , Utah, and Nevada.

They bought 400 horses
Relay stations were built 10 - 15 miles apart
Home stations where built 90 - 120 miles apart where the rider would rest or switch

Mail was delivered in ten days
telagraphs were being delivered two days before Pony Express would arive

1861 the Pony Express discontinued because the telegraph was faster

The Pony Express also died because of the United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service is guaranteed to deliver mail to everyone that lives in the United States. The Pony Express only had a couple routes and stops.

People could write letters and send packages from different parts of the country, instead of traveling across the country. Letters would travel faster. The letters could only be sent if it was on the Pony Express route
1877 First recorded human voice, while Thomas Edison was experimenting with a new telegraph device

1912 Titanic sunk, prompting a federal regulation of radios

Radio act of 1912 a federal law that required all sea vessles to have 24 hours radio watch and keep contact with radio stations

1920 Radio Corporation for America RCA begins to mass produce commercial radios

Westinghouse brodcast
KDKA Pittsburg becomes the first commercial radio
8XK watt station Wilkinsburg PA
Frank Conrad, the assistant chief engineer
Westinghouse owned 20 percent of NBC
WBZ Boston and WBZA Springfeild MA
KEX Portland OR
WJZ New York City renamed WABC
Also owned AM stations
WIND Chicago
WINS a local top 40 Powerhouse which begins with 24 hours of music
KYW begins with 24 hours News
KFWB adoped the 24 hours.

Radio Act of 1927 states that a new government organization would regulate radio called the Federal Radio Commission, which consisted of five people who had the power to allow or decline licensing and assign frequencies. The FRC could not officially censor programs. The programs could not include “obscene indecent of profane language”

1933 FM radio is introduced - higher frequencies

The Communication Act of 1934 was made to provide for the regulation of interstate and foreign communications by wire or radio and for other purposes. It granted the Federal Communication Commission authority with communications of interstate and foreign by wire and radio.

People could listen to what was going on in the news from the convenience of being at home. This was the first time that the entire country could hear the president of the United States, FDR.
History of Media
Pre Printing Press
of the United States

Phillo Farnsworth built the first all-electronic Television when he was 15 years old

Involves the scanning of an image by a beam of light in a series of sequential lines moving top to bottom and left to right each section of the image , as the light passes over it , produces signals which are converted into electronic impulses , strong or weak.

1930 Farnsworth won a patent for the all-electronic TV that he made.

No one was surprised when the television began because it was just a natural step from the radio, adding images to what people heard on the radio.

1948 WBZ Boston
1952 WPTZ Philadelphia
1954 KPIX San Francisco
1955 WDTV (KDKATV) Pittsburg
1957 WAAM- TV (WJZTV) Baltimore
Cable TV system Operator
1981 Teleprompter
Left the cable TV business 1986

FCC did not want companies to monopolize Televisions.
The RCA could only use TV as an experiment to prevent them to monopolize
Sarnoff hired Valaimer Zworykin to build on the invention of the electrical scanning by his mentor Boris Rosling . The combination of Zworykin and Farnsworth provided the basis for a fully electrical television.
By the late 1930’s BBC had regular telecasts

People could watch the news, movies from the convenience of their home instead of going to a theater. Television allowed people to know what their president looked like; it took the listen aspect of the radio and added an image.

March 1876
Alexander Graham Bell
First telephone call in New Haven Ct. - Bell Called his partner Thomas Watson
1884 First long distance from Boston to New York

Bell was influenced by a German Hermann von Helmholtz

Because there were the telegraphs no one surprised when the telephone was invented. It was just a matter of time.

Western Union control, Bell system
Effort to improve and extend the telegraph
Telegraph wire linked cities and towns of North America and Europe (underwater cable crossed the ocean)
AT&T created connections though out the Midwest.

1894 the north east and the Midwest were connected.
1894 the system had 240,000 telephones or one for every 225 Americans
“The telephone is a system for the benefits of capitalists and more well to do people and not for the public at large” - Association of Municipal Corporation

By 1902 more than a thousand independents telephone companies

1892 one telephone for every 208 Americans

1928 First phone book called Gothenburg

The Communication Act of 1934 was made to provide for the regulation of interstate and foreign communications by wire or radio and for other purposes. It garneted the Federal Communication Commission authority with communications of interstate and foreign by wire and radio.
1947 The North American Numbering Plan Association (AT&T or The Bell System) - made up area codes for US and Canada and 9 11 for emergencies in the US.

Telephone let people be able to talk to another person from a short distance, across the street, or to a long distance, across the country. It was faster than the telegraph.
The first presidential election televised
Nixon VS JFK Election 1960
On the Radio Nixon won
On the TV JFK won
1865British constructed the largest cable laying ship ( great Eastern that carried a cable that was long enough to cross the Atlantic Ocean)
1860’s major growth of international cable connections

1895 Guglielmo Marconi sent the first wireless signal, one and half miles.
Created the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company Limited changed later to Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Limited

1901 sent wireless signal cross 21,000 miles ( Podho in Cornwall to St. Johns in New Foundland)

1926 linked England to Canada

Marconi won the Noble Physics Prize in 1909

Cable helped to get information from long distances. Eventually allowed Europe and America to contact each other from a long cable, instead of sending ships with information that could take weeks.
Starr, Paul. "Chapter 6 - New Connections." The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic, 2004.192-212 Print.

Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. "Chapter 5 - New Processes and Patterns " A Social History of the Media: from Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity, 2009. 141 -147 Print.

"Alexander Graham Bell and His Telephone." Fi.edu. Center for Innovation in Science Learning (CISL). Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.fi.edu/franklin/inventor/bell.html>.

"Communications Act of 1934." The FCC And Community Radio. Web. 19 Nov. 2011. <http://www.criminalgovernment.com/docs/61StatL101/ComAct34.html>.
Starr, Paul. "Chapter 6 - New Connections." The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic, 2004. 212-22. Print.
"U.S. Postal System Established — History.com This Day in History — 7/26/1775."History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/us-postal-system-established>.

"Significant Dates." USPS.com® - About. USPS, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <http://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/significant-dates.htm>.
Large computer network linking smaller network to one another
Tim Berners- Lee, the founder of the WWW describes the internet as, “It’s bit like a postcard with a simple address on it. If you put the right addresses on a packet, and gave it to any computer which is connected as part of the Net, each computer would figure out which cable to send it down next so that it would get to its destination. That’s what the internet does, it delivers packets- anywhere in the world, normally well under a second”

ARPA - Advanced Research Projects Agency created for universities
ARPANET- the precursor to the internet that was made by the Department of Defense for universities
The first universities to have the “login” message were from UCLA to Stanford and later two more was added, UC Santa Barbara and University of Utah.

By 1971 there were thirty universities connected
In 1972 Email was invented

Late 70’s TCP/IP (transmission control protocol / internet protocol) was invented as a language for the computers to “talk” to each other.
FTP let networks not in the ARPANET to connect

“The web is abstract (imaginary) space of information on the net, you find computers on the web, you find documents, sound and videos… information” Tim Berners-Lee

1980’s the CDs become standard. Billy Joel’ 52nd Street released in 1982 becomes the first recoding released in Japan.
1990 the start of MP3 compressed digital audio files to a size that can be sent from computer to computer.

The Internet allowed instant communication to anyone who has the internet anywhere in the world. Anyone can use it.

"Exhibits - Internet History." Internet History. Computer History Museum, 2006. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/index.html>.

“the internet: history.” Infoplease. 2000-2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <http://www.infoplease.com/spot/99internet1.html>.

Taintor, Callie. "Inside The Music Industry - Chronology - Technology And The Music Industry | The Way The Music Died | FRONTLINE | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. PBS - Front Line, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/music/inside/cron.html>.
"Original Document." ExplorePAHistory.com. WITF Inc,, 2011. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <http://explorepahistory.com/odocument.php?docId=1-4-288>.

Taintor, Callie. "Inside The Music Industry - Chronology - Technology And The Music Industry | The Way The Music Died | FRONTLINE | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. PBS - Front Line, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/music/inside/cron.html>.

"Radio Act of 1912 Law & Legal Definition." Legal Definitions Legal Terms Dictionary. US Legal Company, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://definitions.uslegal.com/r/radio-act-of-1912/>.

Starr, Paul. "Chapter 10- The Constitution of the Air(1)." The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic, 2004. 343. Print

"Communications Act of 1934." The FCC And Community Radio. Web. 19 Nov. 2011. <http://www.criminalgovernment.com/docs/61StatL101/ComAct34.html>.
Photograph. The First Telephone. Chevron U.S.A. Inc., 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.chevroncars.com/learn/history/first-telephone-call>.
Photograph. How to Get a Job as a Mail Carrier. Demand Media, 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ehow.com/how_6399126_job-mail-carrier.html>.
Rakeman, Carl. The Pony Express. 1860. 1860 - The Pony Express. FHWA, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/rakeman/1860.htm>.
Photograph. How to Make You Internet Connection Faster. 17 Dec. 2010. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.inewsindia.com/2010/12/17/how-to-make-your-internet-connection-faster/>.
Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. "Chapter 1- Introduction." A Social History of the Media: from Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity, 2009. 5-9. Print.
Pony Express Museum. "Pony Express Historical Timeline | Pony Express." Visitor Information | Pony Express. Pony Express National Museum, 2010. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ponyexpress.org/pony-express-historical-timeline>.
Starr, Paul. "Chapter 4- Capitalism and Democracy in Print." The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic, 2004. 113-50. Print.
Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. "Chapter 5 - New Processes and Patterns - Telegraphs." A Social History of the Media: from Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity, 2009. 132-39. Print.

Starr, Paul. "Chapter 5 - the First Wire." The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic, 2004. 155-65. Print.
Starr, Paul. "Chapter 10- the Constitution of the Air(1)." The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic, 2004. 376-84. Print.
Hokusai. The Great Wave off Kanagawa. Artelino. Dieter Wanczura, Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.artelino.com/articles/the-great-wave.asp>.
One message at a time
First 19th Century electrical invention go carry 'messages'
Laissez Fairie- the theory or system of government that upholds the autonomous character of the economic order, believing that government should intervene as little as possible in the direction of economic affairs.
1817-1827 New York built the Erie Canal
1830 Baltimore- Ohio Rail Road
A mix of private and public investments in the Rail Road
Rail roads carried messages that were both private and public
Local Post Offices became in charge of telegraphs
Small commercial optical telegraph-Martha’s Vineyard Boston
Ships had to noticed for the arrival of the telegraph
1832 Samuel Morse invented electromagnetic telegraph hat recorded dots and dashes
Morse First shown in 1837 getting the Commerce Committee of The House of Representatives to approve the finance of the experimental line. Congress did not approve
Becomes a broadcast
The telegraph helped people to communicate from long distances
Morse Code Telegraph. Photograph. White River Valley Museum. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://www.wrvmuseum.org/morsecode/morsecodehistory.htm>.
Photograph. Digital Trends. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.<http://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/new-report-shows-that-more-and-more-people-are-dropping-cable-tv-in-favor-of-web-broadcasts/>.
Printing Press. Photograph. Steven Kreis, 2004. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/press.html>.
At&t Microphone. Photograph. ARS Technica. Matthew Lasar, 2010. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://arstechnica.com/telecom/news/2010/04/atts-forgotten-plot-to-hijack-the-us-airwaves.ars>.
First Televison. Photograph. MagnetUnitProject Physics 163. 2011. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://magnetunitprojectphysics163.wikispaces.com/What+is+the+function+of+magnets+in+televisions%3F+Period+8+B>.
What's Next
The books: Master Switch, The Filter Bubble, Bowling Alone, and Amusing Ourselves to Death
These books are about how media is changing us and how we are interacting with each other.
A lot less social interactions, people are beginning to not know how to interact with each other. Technology affects how we interact with each other.

In America a lot less people belong to social organizations. People are becoming less social and no one is interacting and having civic discussions that would happen if Americans were a part of a “bowling league” and do not “go bowling alone” in simple terms, according to the book Bowling Alone .

Television has become a media only used for entertainment purposes; even the News on TV, there is theme music, and commercials. TV News cannot be taken seriously according to the book Amusing Ourselves to Death. Marshall McLuhan, a media scholar, said that each different type of media requires a different level of knowledge before interacting with the media. For example; reading requires a lot of intellectual knowledge, on the other hand Television requires less knowledge and effort.

Websites are creating algorisms that make judgments on what the consumer likes. For example Google will look at the consumer’s history, anything that is clicked on Google will suggest something that the consumer might like.

Facebook uses the same kind of algorism but, it would use the information that the consumers gives as information of Facebook, like where you live, what school you go to, your activities or key words that keep coming up of your posts. Websites like Google and Facebook are narrowcasting information to the consumer because they are giving a narrow group of ads that the consumer would be interested in.

In the movie Wall-E , it describes our future because the people that are in the movie are what people are going to be in our future , they sit down all day and watch TV which, is effortless and they do not know how to interact with each other( Bowling Alone), Wall- E watches a VHS movie that has people dancing and singing (bowling in a league.) People will soon not know how to “bowl in a league” or even know what a “bowling league” is.
Wu, Tim. The Master Switch: the Rise and Fall of Information Empires. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. Print.

Pariser, Eli. The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print.

Putnam, Robert D. Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. Print.

Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin, 2006. Print.
Disney. "Wall -E." Techland Times. Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://techland.time.com/time_slide/7-wall-e/>.

American Movie Classics Company LLC. "Film History." Greatest Films - The Best Movies in Cinematic History. American Movie Classics Company LLC. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.filmsite.org/filmh.html>.
Hollywood starts in the 1920’s.
By the end of the 1920’s there were twenty Hollywood Studios.
The major genres in 1920’s movies were; Swashbacks, historical extravaganzas and melodramas.
The big studios in 1920 were Warner Brothers, Famous Players (changed to Paramount Pictures in 1935), RKO Pictures, Loew’s Inc. (changed to MGM in 1924) and Fox Film Corporation / Foundation.
The three small studios were Universal Pictures, United Artists and Columbia pictures.

1930’s sound era, two – three color pictures started production
The 1930’s called “The Golden Age of Hollywood”

No promotion of American movies during World War II
Anti- fascist films were common genres during the 1940’s

In the 1950’s, movies were geared toward the teenage audience because the teens wanted movies that were new and exciting : symbols of rebellion.

1960’s was a big turning point in American history with civil rights movement, and the JFK assassination. It was the worst year with only 121 films.
The start of multiplexes and studio takeovers

The 1970’s was a creative high point in the film industries. Directors could take more risks because language , adult content and violence regulations became much looser.
Young directors and “Blockbusters “became a popular trend
Celebrities became watched by magazines. Movies were beginning to be shown on cable television.
Betamax 1975-2002 and VHS 1971 became a way for people to watch movies at home. VHS’ took over and were more popular

In 1980’s the movies became high concepts films that had a lot of action. MTV started music videos which became popular.

1990’s “indie films” stated to be popular.
Computer generated imagery
Remakes and sequels were the majority of movies during the 1990’s
The average movie was 53 million by 1998
Movie stars demanded more money
DVD’s started in 1997 becoming very popular in the 2000’s

In 2000’s special effects became more advanced
TiVo was a way for people to record what was on TV when they were not at home
Blu-ray DVD’s 2006
In the late 2000’s and the 2010’s 3D movies became popular, 3D movies ticket cost more than a regular movie ticket.
Movies and Hollywood
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Fire Side Chat

March 12 1933-June 12, 1944
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