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Transcript of Ancient Greece
Took over the peninsula in 1700 BCE GREECE East of Italy "If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy, my journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, my pride, my glory dies..." Important
People Architecture The majority of Greek art was inspired by its mythology
Statues of gods and goddesses decorated buildings
Pottery, paintings, sculptures depicted mythological events such as the birth of a god/goddess Art Greek civilians believed in twelve Olympian gods for which they based their lives off
Explains their existence and their purpose in life
Greek mythology can be traced back to Middle Eastern cultures (Mesopotamia, Anatolia, etc.)
They believed in gods and goddesses of war, love, prophecy, etc
Greece worshiped deities in mankind's sustenance- not only the essentials for survival, but for progress (both religious and technological) and comfort Quiz Questions Quiz Questions Quiz Questions Olympic
Gods And Goddesses Demeter: Goddess of agriculture, grain, bread, sustenance of mankind Artemis: Goddess of hunting, wilderness, and wild animals Athena: Goddess of wise counsel, war, the defense of towns, heroic endeavor, crafts Ares: God of war, battle lust, civil order, manly courage Hera: Queen of Goddesses; goddess of women and marriage Aphrodite: Goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation Zeus: King of the Gods; god of sky, weather, law, order, and fate (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Hephaestus: God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, and art of sculpture Dionysus: God of wine, vegetation, pleasure, and festivity Apollo: God of prophecy, oracles, healing, plague and disease, poetry, music and song, archery, a protection of youth Poseidon: God of sea, rivers, flood and drought, earthquakes, and horses Hermes: God of travel, hospitality, diplomacy, trade, thievery, language and writing, persuasion and cunning wiles, athletics, astronomy/-ology Mythology A vase in the form of a pomegranate. Pomegranates frequent much of Greek art and myths. Temples were built in a rectangular fashion
Made to be very dim; the lack of lighting increased their mystery
These temples were the eye-candy of its time
Greeks spent more time building temples, stadiums, and theatres than they did their own homes
Pediments (which are triangular gables that are a major part of a facade) that projected over columns that contained sculptures representing gods or goddesses' heroic deeds.
They built these structures out of marble Mediterranean Sea Between Aegean and Ionian Sea Greek mythology is one of the most well known, and inspirational.
Millions of stories, movies, music, etc. are based off Greek legends. Greek architecture has been copied and imitated among many buildings and structures throughout the world The Olympics was Greece's most popular athletic event.
Revived in the last 100 years, Greece's legacy has brought worldwide unity every two years (alternating between summer and winter Olympics) English is built partly out of the Greek language
Most of our scientific and medical terms include Greek root words (bio-, geo-, auto-, etc.) Greek poets, authors, philosophers, etc. inspired and forever impacted Western Literature Homer, although a blind and oral poet, was one of the few of his kind to live through literature
His most famous work included The Iliad which told the story of Achilles and the Trojan War. Homer was also known for The Odyssey which told of Odysseus and his journey after the fall of Troy
Particularly these two works were considered to be turning points in historical tradition and Western Literature, inspiring:
Shakespeare's "Troilus and Cressida"
James Joyce's "Ulysses" Legacy Draco was an Athenian Lawmaker
He created incredibly harsh laws and penalties
He inspired he word "draconian" which describes extreme legal procedures.
Created the term "intention to murder" Examples of his laws:
Making members of the lower class slaves because they were in debt
Punishing by death for cabbage-stealing Olympics Created in honor of Zeus
Dated back to the 8th century B.C.E
By the 6th century, other game events spread to other city-states
Event occurred every 4 years in Olympia
Only Greek nationals could participate
Winning athletes were considered to be heroes and put their city on the map
Unmarried women were welcome to attend (but not participate in) while married women could not watch. Their story of creation starts with nothing but Chaos, then Dark. From there Love was born and soon after, Day and Light. The myth grows with each birth until there are the Olympians and the later-titled Titans fighting for control of the world. When the Olympians won, they imprisoned Titans within Tartarus and went on to defeat the Giants to victory Works Cited: Temple of Hera Important people who influenced Western Culture Mythology: Greece's greatest religion Architecture and Art: Inspired structures and pieces of art worldwide The origin of possibly the world's most popular sports event Mythology's influence on society What three types of buildings did Greeks value the most?
What were some qualities of a traditional Greek temple?
What was usually illustrated in Greek art?
What were Greek rulers called?
What was Greek economy dependent on?
Gil, N.S. "Draco Gave Law to Athens." Ancient/Classical History. About.com. Web. 19 Sept 2012. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/greecehellas1/a/cylonanddraco_3.htm>.
"Draco and Solon Laws." Ancient History of Ancient Greece. International World History Project. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://history-world.org/draco_and_solon_laws.htm>.
Homer. The Illiad of Homer and the Odyssey. Translat. Samuel Butler. London: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1952. Print.
"Homer." Think Quest. Oracle, 2002. Web. 19 Sept 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/17709/people/homer.htm>.
Temple of Hera, Ancient Olympia. 600 B.C.E. Temple of Hera, Ancient Olympia. Gate to Greece 2005-2012. Web. 19 Sept 2012.
Sakoulas, Thomas. Greek architecture. Ancient Greece.org 2012. Web. 19 Sept 2012. <http://ancient-greece.org/architecture.html>.
Mifflin, Houghton. The Legacy of Greece.eduplace. Web. 21 Sept 2012. <http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socse:/ca/book/bkf3/reviews/pdfs/Ls_b_12_04.pdf>
Important Quotation, 900 B.C. Spark Notes. Iliad. Web. 9 Sept 2012.
Homer "Iliad". Spark Notes. 2012. Web. 9 Sept 2012.
Gregory, Crane. Ancient Olympic Events. Tufts University. 17 Sept 2012 <http://perseus.tufts.edu/olympics/sports.html>
“The Other Greek City-States.” Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/background/9a.html>
“Greece Timeline.” Ancient-Greece.org. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://www.ancient-greece.org/resources/timeline.html>
“800-601 BC Part III.” Timeline of World History. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://everyhistory.org/6-3.html>
“Theoi Greek Mythology & The Gods.” Theoi Greek Mythology. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://www.theoi.com/>
“Creation of the World.” Web. 21 September 2012. <http://www.desy.de/gna/interpedia/greek_myth/creation.html>
(Guisepi, Robert). “Legacy.” International World History Project. 2007. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://greek-language.com/History.html>
“Ancient Greece.” History.com. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece>
“The Olympic Games.” History.com. Web. 21 September 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/olympic-games>
Statue of Herakles. Last Quarter of 6th Century B.C.E. Met Museum. Fletcher Fund, 1928. Web. 21 Sept 2012.
Vase in the Form of a Ketos. Second Half of the 7th Century B.C.E. Met Museum. Ariel Hermann, 2009. Web. 20 Sept 2012.
Ivory Decorative Plaque. 2nd Half of 7th Century B.C.E. Met Museum. Gift of J. Piermont Morgan, 17 Dac 1917. Web. 19 Sept 2012.
Terracotta Vase in the Form of a Pomegranate. 8th Century B.C.E. Met Museum. Rogers Fund, 1912. Web. 19 Sept 2012.
Bronze Helmet. 7th Century B.C.E. Met Museum. Norbert Schimmel Trust, 1989. Web. 19 Sept 2012. What were Homer's most well known works?
What was Draco known for?
Where did the original Olympics take place?
Who could participate? Who fought in the Trojan War?
What did mythology have to do with the war?
How many gods and goddesses were there?
How did mythology impact Grecian life? Vase that illustrates first Olympics The
End ! 900 B.C.E 700
B.C.E 480 B.C.E Archaic Period Geometric Period War:
The Trojans Bronze
Helmet 776 B.C.E. "Olympics" begin in Olympia, Greece 600 B.C.E Sports events spreads to other city-states "Ketos", meaning sea monster, influenced how monsters were represented from Afghanistan to India and even said to be partial inspiration for the Chinese Dragon. Herakles 750 B.C.E. The Iliad and The Odyssey were written by Homer Location Two of the most famous types of plays: tragedy and comedy, originated in Greece Athens developed the first democracy
The US Government is based on Athenian democracy 800-600 B.C.E. Architecture
becomes significant 1250 or 1210 B.C.E Trojan War Greek alphabet created Greek colonies settle in Sicily and Italy Legend of Herakles and Oedipus 1100-900 B.C.E.
Dark Ages Sappho: born in Lesbos Homer: born in Ionia Democracy begins in Athens Disapproval of The Counsel prompts Draco to write up harsh law codes Solon is elected as Archon and would later come to alter the severity of social status and government Archons begin being elected, the reelected or new rulers are inaugurated every year for 6 centuries Made of over 1500 city-states In 630 B.C.E. law codes were introduced to Athens Starting in 683 B.C.E., Athenians began electing rulers ( Archons) annually Government Economy?