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Comprehension of Narrative Text

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by

Casie Williams

on 21 October 2012

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Transcript of Comprehension of Narrative Text

chapter 8 Comprehending Narrative Text Provide books based on the students’ cultures, that are in chronological order (flashbacks are confusing,) and avoid idioms and other confusing figurative language.

Choose themes based on fitting in, adjusting to a move, being different, etc.

Choose texts that can teach basics: days of the week, foods, colors, etc.

Choose texts with predictable story lines and illustrations English Learners Cont. recognizing bias in the text and understanding why an author might write that way
understand author’s perspective & use of figurative language
willingness to take action if they are moved by the author’s message
Encourage students to ask questions about what they are reading. What is Critical Literacy?
(reading critically) Life experience or text-to-self connection:

Life experiences dealing with family, friends, community, or other social interactions gives help readers construct meaning in their stories.

Students can struggle with comprehension:
if they don’t make their own connections based on personal experience.
If they rely too much on personal experience. Connecting Prior Knowledge World knowledge or text-to-world connection:

Students have knowledge about the world around them to help them visualize events and settings.

This helps readers of fantasy be able to distinguish between fact and fiction.

Our book uses “arctic” as an example. Most of us know that “arctic” suggests a cold, snowy place. If a struggling reader has no knowledge of the arctic, they will not understand the setting.
Discuss the setting with them before moving on so they can fully understand it. Connecting Prior Knowledge Literary knowledge (text-to-text)
World knowledge (text-to-world)
Life experience (text-to-self) Connecting Prior Knowledge Students should visualize vividly: picture in their mind what the characters see, feel, hear, etc.
For struggling readers, ask them “I wonder” questions.
“I wonder what would happen if…”
“I wonder what that would look like?” Visualizing Requires students to check to see if their reading looks right, sounds right, and makes sense.
Readers need to make sense of what they have just read.
Have them identify unknown words, re-read, read on, use context clues, or even look them up in a dictionary to understand. Self-monitoring The process of judging, concluding, or reasoning indirectly from the information in the text. (A higher-level thinking skill which can be difficult for students.)
Teachers should ask questions that will activate the student’s prior knowledge about the topic.
Reading aloud and stopping to discuss difficult concepts can help students visualize and make personal connections. Making Inferences Students need to have:
background knowledge
adequate vocabulary
motivation
long periods of time for independent reading of text that interest them at the proper reading level To Comprehend Text “Only the curious will learn and only the resolute overcome obstacles to learning.”
~Eugene S. Wilson
COMPREHENSION 0F NARRATIVE TEXT Narrative texts can be so much fun in the classroom! Spend time to read them closely and allow time for a lot of discussion. Have fun with narrative text!! Modify your instruction to be explicit, in-depth, slower paced, and with a lot of discussion.
Let learners discuss in groups to get an even deeper understanding.
Choose appropriate texts that are age appropriate and interesting to the students.
Texts must be quality literature with intriguing plots and well-developed characters.
Teachers should have books accessible for all reading levels in their classrooms. Picture books are great. English Learners & Narrative Text
p. 193 Literary Knowledge or text-to-text connection:

Elements of a story: Plot, Character, Conflict, Theme, Setting, etc.
Help struggling readers by reading stories and completing story webs with them.
Knowledge of Genres and how they are similar to and different from each other.
Help struggling readers by using a Venn diagram and discussing similarities and differences. Connecting Prior Knowledge making inferences, self-monitoring, visualizing, and connecting prior knowledge to text During Reading Strategies Do this before reading.
Use the genre of the text as a guide.
In narrative text the purpose is to find out who did what, when, where, and why. Setting a Purpose: Allows students to draw on background knowledge, supply details, and determine if their prediction was correct.
For struggling readers, start by reading the title, looking at the cover picture, or taking a picture walk through the book.
Have discussions about their predictions and ask why they made their predictions. Predicting: Pre-reading Comprehension Strategies ~The main purpose of reading is comprehension and many people struggle with it.
~This is difficult because comprehension is an active process that requires higher level thinking skills.
~Students need to be able to understand the prepositions of sentences and relate the meaning to the text. Strategies for Comprehension:
Draw inferences
Predict
Self-monitor
Retell & summarize
Draw conclusions
Activate prior knowledge
Use knowledge of text structures
Visualize before, during and after reading
Generate own questions Comprehension Standardized tests:
Iowa Basic Skills
Stanford
NESA Formal: Reading inventories
Miscue analysis
Retrospective miscue analysis
Running records
Retelling
Think-alouds
Cloze and maze tests
Rubrics
Computer programs Informal: Comprehension Assessment
p. 190 Elaborating on the Author’s Intent:

Why did the author write the story?
Teach a lesson
Explore another culture
Inspire
Give historical information
Make reader laugh

What was the author’s point of view?

Is there any bias? Drawing Conclusions:

Students answer higher-level thinking questions.

Struggling readers have a hard time coming up with answers that aren’t directly in the text. Retelling:

Name the main characters

State the problem

Identify events leading to conflict and resolution

Tell events in chronological order After Reading Strategies Vocabulary: Students need to have a large listening vocabulary to better comprehend text.

Increase vocabulary by discussing the topic of the story before reading using new words.
Write word on board & have them say it so they are more likely to recognize it in the text.
Stop to clarify unknown words while you’re reading to explain.
Provide examples. They are easier to understand than abstract definitions. Fluency: A reader can accurately and automatically recognize a large bank of words, read at an appropriate rate (75 wpm/98% accuracy,) and with expression.

Studies show a correlation between the growth in fluency & growth in comprehension. Decoding: This helps students to pronounce a word correctly which could help them understand the word.

Including letter-sound relationships, consonant blends, consonant digraphs, vowel digraphs, and diphthongs.
analyze words with multiple syllables
understand meanings of basic prefixes, suffixes, and root words
recognize familiar words and decode unknown words quickly Reading Skills Needed for Comprehension, p. 180 If you are about to read a story about a dog or food..... For Example: * Share a personal story with students (to get them thinking of the topic.) Then ask students if they have their own story to share, This gives them a personal connection.
* Showing a short entertaining or interesting clip about the subject could also spark a connection. http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/fairytales/ Readwritethink.org has an interactive tool where students can create an alternate version of a fairy tale. **p. 195-213 has many different comprehension strategies http://www.starfall.com/
This site is great for beginning readers.

http://mightybook.com/
This site is very entertaining. On p. 213 there are several websites with helpful reading materials.
Here are a couple that I liked: Be careful when choosing ebooks:
~Some are so entertaining, students only focus on the animation and don’t follow the story line.

*p.573 has an e-book evaluation form to help
you decide if it is a book best fit for your purposes. Computers & e-readers are very interesting & helpful to children if:
~engaging
~interactive
~highlight text
~pronounces words
~provides definitions
~narrates the story
~click on characters & objects in pictures Narrative Text and Technology Casie Claussen
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