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Oceanography: Shipping

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Katarina Gusavac

on 14 December 2014

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Transcript of Oceanography: Shipping

Oceanography: Shipping
Group - A.P Moller Maersk Group
Tides and Currents
Trade Winds
Hurricanes and Cyclones
Investigate the Conflict Resolution processes in relation to shipping.
Cruise Ships
Cargo Shipping
Some companies’ small companies combine with larger ones that are delivering to the same place to reduce their carbon footprint by up to 66%. Companies are also re-using their previous containers.

The World Shipping Council (WSC) stated in 2013 that shipping is the most carbon efficient mode of transport. The members of the WSC have engaged in number tasks to decrease the amount of Co2 emissions that are being spread into the ocean. They have actively signed and supported the development of a global policy that is still yet to be placed in action. They all go through the International Maritime Organization (IMO)

The members of the WSC believe that they best way to make shipping environmental friendly is to reduce the amount of fossil fuels that ships use. The WSC interacts with many different governments to create the best policies possible. The WSC works specifically with the IMO and other organizations on a broad range of issues relating to the protection of human health and the Environment.

Liner Shipping and Carbon Emissions Policy
The Linear Shipping and Carbon Emissions Policy was put into action in September 2009. Maritime shipping produces an estimated 2.7% of the world Co2 emissions and expects them to rise by as much as 72 percent by 2020 if no action is taken.
In 2008 after a successful IMO agreement on new regulations to reduce NOx (mono-nitrogen oxides) and SOx (sulphur oxide) and Particular Matter (PM) emissions. NOx and SOx emission come from the exhaust from diesel fuels and are large contributors of climate change.

The linear Shipping and Carbon Emissions policy is the monitoring and observing of NOx, SOx and Pm emissions.

The true scale of climate change emissions from shipping is almost three times higher than previously believed, according to a leaked UN study seen by the Guardian.
Shipping Noise to Kill Orcas.
Environmental Perspective
The environmental damage from shipping is growing each year, even though more sustainable energy sources are being discovered major companies refuse to use them as they are comfortable with using coal.

Environmentalist frown upon shipping as the coal emissions are adding to the already visible climate change that is warming the world. The Shipping of natural food is also dangerous for the environment as not all of the food can survive so the 'waste food' is often dumped into the ocean on the return ship.
Marine Perspective
Shipping kills hundreds of animals every year from krill to killer whales. The marine life of the ocean is very diverse and every animals has a place and a job. Shipping is effecting the natural order of the ocean.

Ships are intruding into the home and breading spaces of many different animals kills the offspring and endangering species.

When ships skin or collide, the disaster that follows is catastrophic. Oil spillages kill hundreds of animals and the risk of and oil spill is relatively low but it does happen. Even with today's technology we cant keep all the ships in the ocean afloat.
If traveling on a cargo ship as a passenger (leisure cruise) the food is 5 star with fresh food and an assortment, however, if you rare a crew member on a long shipment transport then the food is basic. food scraps are often disposed of incorrectly and thrown into the vast ocean.

Marine life often eats the food scraps and although sometimes everything is fine more often than not the food harms the animals life and can kill it.

Plastic is disposed of usually in the correct way which is to be kept on board until docked were it is taken to a land fill, but when duped in the ocean one small piece of plastic can kill up to 20 different animals.
LNG Carrier
LNG carrier ships are now becoming more popular in the recent years. They are becoming popular because the cargo containers are re-used over and over again.

A typical LNG carrier has four to six tanks located along the center-line of the vessel. Surrounding the tanks is a combination of ballast tanks, cofferdams and voids; in effect, this gives the vessel a double-hull type design.

LNG carriers are very good because they are build to last and even if the ship was to sink or capsize all the gas would stay inside the containers.
Describe the geographical processes related to shipping.

There are many different
geographical processes that affect shipping. They include tides and currents, sea ice, trade winds and hurricanes.
Tides and currents directly affect shipping as all ships follow shipping lines. The purpose of these lines allow for navigation experts to minimize damage that can occur if ships were to collide. Ships often follow set routes that are in line with currents and tides as it uses less petroleum and preserves the ocean.
According to certain scientists global warming is the reason that the ice caps are melting. Whether this reason is true or not the ice caps are indeed melting at a rate of 8% per year, and this is increasing as the year’s progress. The diminishing of sea ice allows for more shipping room which in return is damaging the ocean
and its marine life.
Trade winds affect the process of shipping, as ships follow tides and currents they also follow the wind. this means that they can use natures own force to help them move rather than using fossil fuels that damage the environment. Trade winds just like currents and tides often change throughout the day, meaning that ships must navigate and plan the best routes for deliveries.
Hurricanes and cyclones are very dangerous and can appear at any time when the weather permits. They can over through ships, making them capsize or they can make them disappear. Often when disasters like this happen there are oil spills into the ocean and cargo is lost.
Maersk is considered the large and more expansive shipping company. It was founded in 1904 and is still running smoothly today. Maersk became the largest shipping company in 1996 as has stayed at the top. Although Originally stationed in Copenhagen, Denmark the now can be found in over 135 different countries.

They opperate 600 vessels, at any given time there are at least 20 of their ships moving around the world. Maersk also owns Emma Maersk, which is considered the largest container ship in the world.

Over the past 5 years there has been an increase of pirate attacks which are consisting of armed gangs hijacking shipping vessels and demanding ransom for the release of the vessel and the crew. Both local and international governments are working together to create a safe shipping environment around the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden.

Actions have been taken by many different Nations to keep peace in the oceans. Actions include receiving support from large NGO's such at NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization), who keep tranquility all over the North Atlantic. There is no specific NGO that looks over the Pacific ocean although there is a mutual agreement between Australia, Asia and America to look after it.
"Two major feeding grounds for Pacific blue whales are bisected by busy shipping lanes near major seaports in San Francisco and Santa Barbara, Calif., a new study reports"

This is a direct extract from the New York Times written on the 28th of July 2014. Even with modern day technology the creaters of shipping lanes cannot leave the marine life in peace.

"Large ships could easily injure or kill whales that are looking for food. And blue whales, an endangered species, have few feeding options. Although they are enormous, they rely almost entirely on krill."

Shipping lanes are shared around with many different companies making it difficult for companies to maintain timed deliveries. There have been report of distributors who dont follow shipping lanes although most come out safe they damage the environment as they are tearing through restricted areas.
Cruise ships are not required to follow the clean water act policy which means that they dump their sewage into the water wherever they want. They are not required to monitor or report what they dispose into the ocean.

The average cruise with 3,000 passengers produce over 30,000 gallons of human waste and 225,000 gallons of non-sewage grey waste water. Grey waste water is relatively clean water that usually comes from the laundry, kitchen or basins. This water can be recycled but is still deadly to the environment.
The Guardian, 13th February 2008
The shipping industry is responsible for 3% of greenhouse gas emissions and has traditionally used cheap, polluting fuel, but new standards in the industry are forcing it to clean up its act
The Guardian AU, 1st August 2014
Recently in the newspaper (The Squamish Chief) it was recorded that the noise of shipping vehicles is disrupting the natural orca communication. Orcas, dolphins and whales are misinterpreting the sound from the cargo vessels as other marine animals as are responding to the sounds. Up to 3 orcas have been killed in the last year from this. There is a possibility that shipping lanes may change but the probability of the change being put into action is very minimal.
Some Killer Whale species are considered endangered or threatened. Although they are spread around the world, they travel in groups. In shipping accidents such as these it is often that the whole group in injured.
Precautions need to be taken in order to protect the marine animals and the environment.
Finance vs Environment

The Corporate Perspective
The shipping industry bring is over $2 billion every year. The shipping industry contributes a great deal of money to the global economic salary. major corporations can make up to $1 billion themselves. Many large corporate companies oftne shipping as the only form of transport.

Shipping also makes a company more well known, and often develops the distribution range.
Groups, Governments
and Individuals

Geographical Processes
Ice Caps
Conflict and Resolution
Ship Owner Perspective
The owners perspective is very different to the other perspectives as this is a form of living for some people. When ship owners are asked if their motivation is environmental or economic, the majority of them answered with both. Their lives depend on the amount of money they can bring home. But alternate options are being investigated to make shipping a more environmentally friendly transport option.

"We measure the performance of retrofitted technologies, we have invested in flow meters to accurately measure bunker deliveries and we have fuel performance bonuses written into charter agreements. As a result, our eco-efficient vessels can command a premium and fuel savings can be shared.”
- Mark Cameron COO of Ardmore Shipping

From Blue News
Financial Perspective

Recently there have been extreme changes in revenues (profit), operating cash flows (which companies are making the most money and where they are stationed). Asset values (part of a companies total value) during recent financial crisis (2005-2008).

"As a result, the shipping industry will increasingly look to capital markets for external funds. And shipping banks are likely to change from being commercial bank lending institutions to becoming more like investment banks that arrange a variety of financing solutions."
- Don Chew (written 2011)
"While a tanker spill is unlikely, the results could be lethal" - Eoin Finn
The Squamish Chief
Contemporary Management Practices
Waste management plans are used to eliminate dumping waste illegally to the sea. Waste monitors are used to observe where waste is disposed of and if it is done correctly.

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
is used to provide guidelines and rules for shipping industry's to follow in order to make shipping environmentally friendly.

The MARPOL ( Marine Pollution) Convention is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 respectively and updated by amendments through the years.

MARPOL requests ports to prepare and implement port waste management plans, provide on international framework on management of ship and port wastes.
- Turkish Weekly
"Many examples have already demonstrated that unsatisfactory waste handling and/or even illegal dumping take place in many ports around the world due to inefficient waste management operations"
Scientists have analyzed different areas of the ocean and it has been concluded that shipping accounts for 15-30% of all waste. And an estimated 65% of this comes from fishery vessels. Shipping puts in an estimated 45% of the total oil input into the marine environment.

MARPOL has set standard that all shipping ports are required to follow. Just over 75% of shipping ports follow these requirements but developing countries have proven to be struggling to follow MARPOL's waste requirements.
"The cargo comes first"
- liquefied natural gas
Shipping is an extremely vital industry that most people are not aware of. Have you ever wondered how exotic fruits from Asia can end up still fresh and juicy in Australia or Europe? The shipping industry plays a huge part in all these by helping us achieve the goals of globalization and making this world look like just one small town.
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