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Biomolecules

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Mandy Stevens

on 17 October 2016

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Transcript of Biomolecules

Biomolecules

Lipids
Lipids are made out of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Monomer: Triglycerides
A triglyceride is 3 fatty acids & 1 glycerol molecule
A fatty acid is a long hydrocarbon chain

Proteins
Made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Monomer: amino acids
Very large and complex molecule
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrate Functions
Carbs are the main energy source for the body
Carbs are broken down in cells to release ATP so the cells can function
Carbohydrate Examples
Sugars, Starches, Grains, Rice, Cereals, Potatoes, Fruits, Pastas, Veggies
Protein Functions
Proteins are involved in pretty much everything that goes in in your body.
SOME functions: enzymes, allow things in & out of cells, fight disease.
Contains the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
1:2:1 ratio; there are 2 hydrogen atoms for every 1 atom of carbon and oxygen
Monomer: simple sugars

Carbohydrates
Lipid Structure
Glycerol: Carbons bonded together in blue
Fatty Acid: The chains of Carbons bonded in pink
Vocabulary
Monomer - the basic building block of a molecule

Polymer - formed when monomers bind together
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Lipid Functions
Lipids are a major component of the membrane in each of your cells (that's why it's called a phospholipid bilayer)

Lipid Functions
Lipids are used to make hormones
Lipids are also a
huge
energy source.
Carbs are easier to break apart than lipids, so your body will use carbs as an energy source first.
Types of Lipids
Saturated Fat - fats that are solid at room temperature; made with only single bonds
What are examples of saturated fats?
Unsaturated Fat - fats that are liquid at room temperature; made with single & double bonds
What are examples of unsaturated fats?
Which fats are healthier fats?
Lipid Examples
Fat, oil, lard, butter
Protein Examples
Meat, beans, leafy green veggies, nuts, eggs, milk & milk products
Made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphate

Monomer: nucleotide
Nucleic Acid Functions
DNA & RNA carry genetic information.

RNA is used to synthesize (make) proteins
Eating Nucleic Acids
Since we eat organisms, we are eating cells along with that cell's DNA

Our body breaks down the cells, and their DNA, and the components are recycled. Our body can use those components to build our DNA
Types of Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrate: C, H, O
Lipid: C, H, O (in long chains)
Protein: C, H, O, N (and rarely S)
Nucleic Acid: C, H, O, N, P
CHONPS
Organic Molecules
Organic = pertaining to life

Our body needs organic molecules to survive.

We get these from the foods we eat.

The 4 types of organic molecules are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Nucleotide Structure
Sizes of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
- 1 sugar
ex: glucose, fructose
Disaccharaides
- 2 sugars
ex: sucrose
Polysaccharides
- many sugars
ex: starch, cellulose
Large carbohydrates such as starch are known as ... ?
a. lipids
b. monosaccharides
c. proteins
d. polysaccharides
Which of the following is true about cellulose?
a. Animals make it and use it to store energy.

b. Plants make it and use it to give structural support to cells.

c. Plants make it and use it to store energy.

d. Animals make it and use it as part of the skeleton.

The order of amino acids determines the structure of the protein.

There are 21 different R groups.
The structure of the protein determines its function
Why are proteins considered to be one of the most diverse macromolecules?
a. they contain both amino groups and carboxyl groups.

b, they can twist and fold into many different and complex structures.

c, they contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

d. their R groups can be either acidic or basic.
A major difference between polysaccharides and proteins is?
a. plants make polysaccharides, while animals make proteins.

b. proteins are made of monomers, while polysaccharides are not.

c. polysaccharides are made of monosaccharides, while proteins are made of amino acids.

d. proteins carry genetic information, while polysaccharides do not.
3 parts: PBS
Phosphate
Base
Sugar
Many lipids are formed from glycerol and?
a. fatty acids.
b. monosaccharides.
c. amino acids.
d. nucleic acids.

Show what you know!
1. Which is bigger - disaccharide or polysaccharide?

2. How are carbs used in the body?

3. What elements make up a carb?

4. Give 2 examples of a carbohydrate.
Show what you know!
1. What elements make up a lipid?

2. How can you distinguish between a lipid and a carbohydrate?

3. Give 3 functions for lipids in your body.

4. Lipids provide more energy per gram than carbohydrates. Why does your body use carbohydrates for energy before it uses lipids?
Show what you know!
1. What is the monomer for a protein?

2. What determines the
structure of a protein?

3. Give 2 functions for proteins in your body.

What is an enzyme?
Enzymes
A special class of proteins
Chemical reactions require energy to get started (called activation energy), and enzymes work by lowering the amount of energy needed to complete the reaction.
Knowing this, What do you think an enzyme's effect is?
Show what you know!
1. What is the monomer for nucleic acids?

2. What are the elements that make up nucleic acids?

3. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?

4. How is DNA different from RNA?
Full transcript