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Cheuk Ho Sze

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Spirituality

future healthcare professionals
, we……
Accept our imperfections
But we will improve
Be faith of ourselves
But also comply with instructions
Understand the meaning of death
But still try to prevent it from happening

Involves a sense of closeness and connection to the
or to

Without purpose
Unlike professional use

No limitation
Recognize differences with others
Methodology & target group
Internet-based survey
all respondents are sales professionals

Sample responses is 101

Across sales professionals
Across various industries
Religiosity and spirituality are different, but related constructs.

(Myers, 2003)
Table of content
1. Definition
2. Myer’s OTAID Model of Spiritual Development
3. Study 1
4. Study 2
5. Ways to promote spirituality
6. Reflection
Many definitions and descriptions of spirituality appear in the professional literature.
Spirituality versus Religiosity
Types of Spirituality
An awareness of a being or force that transcends the material aspects of life and gives a deep sense of wholeness or connectedness to the universe

(Myers, Sweeney &Witmer, 2000)
Meaning and purpose
It is our way of finding coherence in and giving meaning to the multiple forces and relations that make up our lives

(Fowler, 1981)
God or a higher power
A person takes as they pursue a relationship with a higher power. The higher power is a being unseen that has ultimate control and power in the spirit and material world.

(Davis, 1986)
Openness to the infinite
Spirituality is a meaningful and extensive way of knowing the world.

(Dawson, 1997)
Every soul is
Join the
Football Game
Four types of Spirituality
1. Religious
2. Humanistic
3. Nature
4. Cosmos

(Worthington et al, 2010)
Religious Spirituality
Involves the sense of closeness and connection to
God or a higher power
, experienced through the practice of a particular religion (e.g., Christianity, Islam, Buddhism).

Nature spirituality

Cosmos spirituality

Involves the sense of closeness and connection with the
whole of creation
Involves a sense of closeness and connection to
. It develops a sense of connection to a group of people, often involving feelings of love, altruism, or reflection.

Humanistic spirituality

Myer’s OTAID Model of Spiritual Development
: Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development

Identity Development/Spiritual Development :” the process by which one comes to the world in a way in which spirit and matter co-exist.

Model of
Humanistic Spirituality
Path and Progress of Spirituality
Path and Progress of Spirituality
Optimal Conceptual System
“Spirit” + “matter” are one thing (co-exist)

manifestations of
spiritual energy
, not because they own/ do not own something

Spirituality starts from an individual
, then connect individuals to
, and expand to the

Help intrinsically increases the
of individuals + maintain
social harmony
Study 1
Whether, When, and How Is Spirituality Related to Well-Being? Moving Beyond Single Occasion Questionnaires to Understanding Daily Process

(Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012)
To investigate the

between spirituality and well-being

To discover

the ways
that spirituality triggers off well-being if there is a positive relationship

Key Terms
Greater self-esteem, meaning in life and positive feelings

Trait spirituality
Spirituality that is evaluated from the personalities
Long term

Daily spirituality
Spirituality that is measured and evaluated daily
Short term
Target group
150 college students

87 participants with higher spirituality

63 participants with lower spirituality
Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS)
1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree

Participants was first asked to take an initial session to value their level of spirituality

The duration of this study is
2 weeks

Participants took daily report online to answer questions about self-esteem, meaning of life, positive and negative effects

The form of report=
Result and discussion
What is the relationship between spirituality and well-being?

Spirituality is positively related to well-being
Result and discussion
Identifying meaning of life
Have an insight in the nature of themselves
Investigate and understand themselves more
Easier to identify the meaning and purpose of life

Result and discussion
Raising self-esteem
Possess a concrete and affirmative conception of themselves
Values and believes would not be deflated
Stronger self-esteem
Stronger confidence

Result and discussion
Overcoming obstacles
Induce motivation and energy to people
Think positively
Get power to be insistent
Create satisfactory future

Result and discussion
Study 2
Individual Spirituality at Work and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction, Propensity to Leave and job Commitment: An Exploratory Study Among Sales Professions

(Chawla & Guda, 2010)
Result analysis
Why do we choose this study
Sale Profession is characterized by:
High degree of job related stress
Increase work environment operate under the pressure of globalization, downsizing, layoffs
Decline in traditional form of community

Interesting facts
In India, many companies follow the “
New Age Principal

Such as Meditation to attain inner calmness, balance between personal and professional life
Interesting facts
We can easily find meaning in lives by being able to
strike a balance
between personal and work life
Defining individual spirituality at workplace
About expressing
one’s inner self
through meaningful work and belongingness
3 Components:

Sense of community

Meaningful work

Inner life
May Affect…

Job commitment

Job satisfaction

Propensity to leave
Result analysis
Path and Progress of Spirituality
Path and Progress of Spirituality
As many workers and employees often feel frustrated and burnout in our lives

Spiritual identity (or inner life) at workplace can help us to express our
spiritual identity
through meaningful work and belonging to the community

Individual often express part of their spiritual identity through
being part of the community
which makes their lives fill with meaning.
One way that spirituality can affect our lives are about our
devotions to work

Many people live without a meaning

It is important for us to live
with a direction

and meaningful life so that we can truly enjoy our lives.
Ways to promote spirituality
Definition of Meditation
A practice in which an individual
trains the mind

Induces a mode of consciousness to
realize some benefit
and as an end in itself

(Lutz et. al, 2008)
Relationship with others
Dilemma & Difficulty
Purpose of life/Goal
What is meditation?
Meditation is :
1. to promote
2. to build internal
3. to practice explicitly
cultivate virtues
character strengths
4. to set time for practice
5. variations of practices
6. to evoke spiritual models
7. to develop a higher level of inner

In a

quiet environment
Buddhist monks involve awareness in their day-to-day activities as a form of
Involves repeating a

and closing the eyes
Involves an internal effort to
the mind
Benefits of meditation
Better focus
Less anxiety
More compassion
Better memory
Less stress
Before and After meditation
Let's try!
Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation.
Trends in cognitive sciences, 12
(4), 163-169.

Menke, C. S. C. (2005). Synthesizing a Comprehensive Definition of Spirituality and Spiritual Development and the Construct Validity of the Optimism Subscale of the Belief Systems Analysis Scale.

Myers, J. E., Sweeney, T. J., & Witmer, J. M. (2000). The wheel of wellness counseling for wellness: A holistic model for treatment planning.
Journal of Counseling & Development, 78
(3), 251-266.

Myers, J. E., & Williard, K. (2003). Integrating spirituality into counselor preparation: A developmental, wellness approach.
Counseling and Values, 47
(2), 142-155.

Neal, J. (2000). Work as Service to the Divine Giving our Gifts Selflessly and with Joy.
American Behavioral Scientist, 43
(8), 1316-1333.

Worthington, E. L., Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., & McDaniel, M. A. (2011). Religion and spirituality.
Journal of clinical psychology, 67
(2), 204-214.
Chawla, V., & Guda, S. (2010). Individual Spirituality at Work and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction, Propensity to Leave and Job Commitment An Exploratory Study among Sales Professionals.
Journal of Human Values, 16
(2), 157-167.

Culliford, L. (2011).
The psychology of spirituality: An introduction
. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Davis, G. L. (1986). Spiritual direction: a model for adolescent catechesis.
Religious Education, 81
(2), 267-279.

Dawson, P. J. (1997). A reply to Goddard's ‘spirituality as integrative energy’.
Journal of Advanced nursing, 25
(2), 282-289.

Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith:
The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning
. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Kashdan, T. B., & Nezlek, J. B. (2012). Whether, when, and how is spirituality related to well-being? Moving beyond single occasion questionnaires to understanding daily process.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38
(11), 1523-1535.
The within-person
between spirituality and self-esteem and between spirituality and meaning in life remained
statistically significant
γ 10 = .10
, t = 3.07,

p < .01
; meaning in life:
γ 10 = .19
, t = 3.07,
p < .01
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