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Transcript of Nonwoven Fabrics
or combinations thereof History of Nonwovens 1942 the first nonwovens are introduced (drylaid technology for making the web).
1950's Chicopee Mills markets Handi-Wipes®.
Pellon Corporation becomes an important producer, specializing in inner lining and interfacing for apparel.
1960's additional technologies are introduced which expanded the variety of nonwovens being made.
the rest of the century saw increasing growth of nonwovens with the development of composite materials. Basic Materials to Produce Nonwoven Fabrics: Fibers (primarily olefin, polyester and rayon)
specialty chemicals such as: bonding agents to provide strength
auxiliary agents which can be used to control flexibility, enhance surface texture, or alter moisture transport capability. They do not need to be finished, but a finish may be applied for flame retardation, increased absorbancy, etc. The performance profile of nonwovens depends upon the fiber solution, arrangement in the fibers in the web and how the component fibers are held together. 2 CATEGORIES Durable: Materials not intended to be thrown away after a single or limited number of applications [ie: Apparel interlinings, carpet backing, subsoil covers for road beds, tiles on a space shuttle, etc.] Disposable: Materials manufactured with the intention of being thrown away after a single or limited number of uses. [ie: headrests, filters, surgical gowns, coveralls, absorbant hygiene products, etc.] MANUFACTURING NONWOVENS 3 Major Methods... WETLAID: SPUNLAID: DRYLAID: the material structure is found by having the fibers manipulated while in the dry state. the material structure is formed by blowing thermoplastic fibers onto a collection surface as they are extruded.
the webs can be bonded by: the material structure is formed by having the fibers manipulated while in a wet state. this is the least used system the most used system worldwide
its methods include carded and airlaid a mechanical [entanglement]
or thermal [fusing] process Carded-Web nonwovens are produced by forming a web of fibers by mechanical means and then bonding the fibers.
(ie: with a carding machine [carded-drylaid], air-blowing [airlaid-drylaid], or liquid [wetlaid]) the first nonwovens, the largest volume of nonwovens are made this way.
may be unidirectional, cross-laid, or random web, indicating the orientation of the fibers. the distance between fibers is much greater than the diameter of the fiber.
the weight of the web is usually low and it is usually very thin, porous web material. [used extensively in disposable items ie. chefs’ hats, hospital gowns, tablecloths and female hygiene products] Spunlaced nonwovens are formed by entangling staple fibers using high-pressure water jets on the web [wetlaid]. The fibers knot and curl around each other causing mechanical binding [hydroentangling]. since no binders are used, softness, drape and bulk result. [used extensively for robes, mattress pads, backings of tablecloths, mops, wipes, etc.] Spunbonded nonwovens are made from the continuous extrusion of filaments into a web [spunlaid].
Randomly oriented filament fibers are consolidated by thermal bonding, mechanical entanglement, adhesive bonding, or etched filament surfaces to interlock the fibers. this method produces the 2nd largest amount of nonwovens [used in geotextiles, padded mailing envelopes, wallpaper backing, shoe linings, carpet bagging, vinyl films, protective apparel, etc.]
(aka tyvek) MELT-BLOWN nonwovens are produced when the molten polymer is accelerated by high-velocity hot-air jets through the spinnerette reducing the filaments to microdenier size. The filament fibers break into staple fibers and are propelled to a collection surface, cohesive web structures result. low fiber strength and low abraison resistance. [used for insulation of outdoor garments and boots, filtration, battery separators and industrial wipes] nEEDLE-pUNCHED nonwovens are made by passing a continuous web of fibers through a needle-punch machine, entangling the fibers to hold them together. If the fibers are thermoplastic they can be heat fused to increase tensile strength. machine consists of a multitude of barbed needles or hooks mounted on a grid that vibrates up and down. as the web passes the grid the needles pierce the web and entangle the fibers as they withdraw creating a tangled mass of material.
sometimes called “mechanical felt” or “needle-punched felt” nonwovens which the somewhat resemble
inexpensive [used to make flat indoor/outdoor carpet from olefin fibers, car mats, blankets and apparel insulation] Fusible Nonwovens: either made from thermoplastic fibers or are thermoplastic films. used primarily as interlining for clothing and provide shape to cut parts of garments and hold garment parts together.
It is attached be ironing it to fabric and becomes stiff as it cools. Hybrids: nonwovens made by combining technologies to increase versatility and extends nonwoven’s marketplace reach. Each technique is used. The Environment more interest in eco-friendly nonwovens
Fiberweb PLC has launched EcoFibers®, a line of nonwovens made from at least 50% renewable materials.
biodegradable wipes are also being printed without conventional inks. (150x)