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PSY 351_March 7th and 9th Lecture on FBA

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Michael Cameron

on 10 March 2016

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Transcript of PSY 351_March 7th and 9th Lecture on FBA

Socially Mediated Negative

The withdrawal (- subtracted) of an aversive (by another person) following a behavior. The result is an increase in the behavior
Escape or avoidance of demands
Postponement of demands
PSY 351 Lecture
March 7th and 9th 2016
Functional Behavior Assessment

Integration of Concepts
Class Goals
Start the FBA

Dr. Michael Cameron

Functional Behavior

Desired Outcomes of an FBA
PSY 351:
Tuesday and Thursday
Assist with Functional Assessment Procedures
The Goals for the next two classes:
To review a brief history of functional
To review the three types of
assessment and the assessment
To discuss the implications of
the findings of a functional assessment
To review the
critical elements
of a Behavior
Intervention Plan
To discuss the
role of the clinician
during FBA
The term
refers to
of behavior
Skinner was the first to use
the term to refer to causes of
behavior. His interest was in
precision of language and stressing
the importance of identifying the
environmental events (e.g., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement) that are
functionally related to behavior

Skinner demonstrated that both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors showed functional relationships related to
antecedents and consequences
During the late 1970s and
early 1980s Dr. Brian Iwata studied
the self-injurious behavior of people
with disabilities and developed
the first set of procedures for
conducting a functional analysis of
Identify antecedents that can be altered
Identify consequences that can be altered
Identify reinforcement for replacement behavior
Dr. Brian Iwata

Dr. Iwata developed a protocol to
help us determine "why" problem behavior occurs (How does the behavior benefit the individual?)
Emphasized the
"function" of behavior rather than "form"
The functional assessment
process has been refined
and now forms a
substantial literature
The functional assessment
process is now used
for a wide range of
challenging behavior
and with people with
varying clinical presentations
A Naturalistic Functional
Analysis of Binge Eating
Johnson, Schlundt, Barclay, Carr-Nangle, and
Engler (1995)
What is a Functional Behavior
A set of procedures for
the causes of a challenging
behavior and variables that
maintain the behavior
Why do we
want to know about cause?
We want to identify a functional
relation between challenging
behavior and environmental
What are the
causes of behavior?
Our understanding of the "function"
of a behavior will allow us to effectively
support the process of behavior change
Socially-Mediated Positive Reinforcement

Something delivered (
added ) by another person after the behavior occurs that makes future occurrences more likely (attention, activity, tangibles)
Who Conducts a Functional Assessment?

Board Certified Behavior Analysts
School Psychologists
School, Hospital, Clinic-based teams
Always involve the family

The information we
obtain through the functional
assessment process will allow us
to design an appropriate Behavior Intervention Plan
as a result of making changes in the antecedents and consequences a person comes in contact with
Automatic Positive Reinforcement

Movements or activities of the body
that result in sensations (
addition) that
render the behavior that produced the
sensations more likely to occur in the future
An understanding of the function of problem behavior (i.e., what does the person get as a result of engaging in the behavior?)
An understanding of what the person may be trying to communicate via their challenging behavior
An understanding of a person's strengths
An understanding a a person's skill deficits or performance deficits
Information that will allow us to develop an appropriate Behavior Intervention Plan
The process advances along a continuum of precision and difficulty. Your BCBA supervisor, or team, will determine the course of action
Indirect Assessment
Direct observation and assessment in the natural
environment (e.g., classroom, home)
Experimental Manipulations
Functional Assessment

Indirect Assessments

Functional Assessment Interview
Student Guided Functional Assessment Interview
Rating Scales and Checklists

Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS)
Durand and Crimmins, 1988
Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST)
Iwata, 1995
Setting Events Checklist (Gardner & Cole, 1990)
Questions about
Behavioral Function
(QABF) Matson and
Vollmer, 1995

Direct Observations
recording (ABC) or sequence analysis

Experimental Manipulations
An Empirical Evaluation Conducted
by a BCBA
Analog or in situ
Used if the function of behavior cannot by hypothesized as a result of steps 1 and 2
Used if the severity of the behavior does not put anyone at risk
Review of Conditions

(test for
(test to see if
behavior is maintained
by various forms of
(test to determine
if behavior is maintained by
client's ability to escape or
avoid demands)
(this is
a control
5 Steps to Lasting
Behavioral Change

Mayer, Sulzer-Azaroff, and Wallace (2011)
Know the person
you are supporting
and the context
Build Rapport
Know the environment
and your support team

Interdisciplinary Review Team
School Psychologist


Identify Treatment Options

Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behavior
Evidence-Based Practices
Ensure Resources are Available
Goodness of Fit
The Aesthetics of Behavioral Arrangements
"The attractiveness and
acceptability of an arrangement are
just as integral to that arrangement as are
the results it can produce"
Philip N. Hineline
The Aesthetics of Behavioral Arrangements
The Behavior Analyst (2005)

Involve families
Seek input from siblings
Engage teachers
Gather input for professionals
from other disciplines
Stakeholders must value
the outcomes

Performance-Based Training Procedures
Criterion-Level Performance on written and oral quizzes and performance demonstrations
Verbal Instructions in Lecture
Video Recorded Instructions
Role Playing
In Vivo Instruction
Who was the first person to use the
word "functional" to refer to "causes"
of behavior?
B.F. Skinner
Who developed the first operant
methodology to assess the functional
relationships between self-injury and
specific environmental events?
Dr. Brian Iwata and Colleagues
(Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman,
and Richman, 1994)

What is a Functional Assessment
A set of procedures used to identify
functional relationships between
challenging behavior and specific
environmental events
What is "socially mediated
Reinforcement that is dependent on
other people and involves interaction
with and the mediation of other people
Name the three
assessment methods we
Indirect, direct and descriptive, and
experimental analysis
A Word about Respondent Conditioning
The FBA Process
Identify and agree on the behaviors that need to
the behaviors occur and where and when they
do no
occur (behaviors are
context related)
Collect data (review archival records, interview stakeholders, directly observe the individual in the
natural environment, and if required, conduct an experimental analysis)
Develop a hypothesis about why the behaviors are
occurring (and the function of the behaviors)
Identify other behaviors that can be taught (e.g.,
Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behaviors) to
address the causes of behavior, skill deficits, and
performance deficits
Test the hypothesis
Evaluate the success of your interventions (or adjust)
Moving from the Functional Behavior Assessment to
Behavior Intervention Planning: Clinical Mapping
Collaborative Decision Making
Diana Browning-Wright
Positive Environments, Network
of Trainers
California Department of Education
Diagnostic Center, Southern California
Developing a Behavior Intervention Plan
Problem Behavior is Related to


Search for environmental events
Assess general conditions (e.g., assigned
activities, curricular expectations, seating
arrangements, physiological state)
Behavior Serves a Function


The behavior (adaptive and maladaptive)
results in an agreeable outcomes
(e.g., person gets something or escapes
avoids something)

What are the "triggers" for high likelihood

What are the conditions under which high likelihood
behavior occurs?
Effective Plans Address Environmental
Factors and Function
Change environmental conditions
Teach alternative and acceptable
forms of replacement behavior
Assess the environment (e.g., noise,
temperature, under stimulation and
impoverished environment or over
stimulation, disruptions, aversive
Evaluate environmental predictors
(e.g., lack of choice making
opportunity, unpredictable schedule,
activities or curriculum is too difficult)
Behavior Intervention Plan: Quality
Control and Quality Assurance

Cook, C.R., Crews, S.D, Browning-Wright, D.,
Mayer, G.R., Gale, B., Gresham, F.M., and
Kraemer, B. (2006) . Establishing and Evaluating the
Substantive Adequacy of Positive Behavior Support
Plans. Journal of Behavioral Education
Full transcript