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Winds

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by

Michael Miller

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Winds

Winds
What is wind and why does it move?
Wind is moving air.
It moves because of differences in air pressure.
Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
Types of winds
Global winds
These are a pattern of air circulation that moves across the Earth
They move large distances and blow in the same direction.
Local Winds
These move short distances and can blow from any direction.
Global Winds
Trade Winds
Blow from 30° latitude to 0° (the equator)
Early "traders" used these winds to sail from Europe to the Americas
The trade winds of the north and south meet at the equator.
They flow from north east to the south west in the northern hemisphere.
They flow from the south east to the north west in the southern hemisphere.
Westerlies
Blow from the 30° to 60° latitudes
They flow from the southwest to the northeast in the northern hemisphere.
They flow from the north west to the southeast in the southern hemisphere.
Polar Easterlies
Blow from the poles to the 60° latitudes.
They come from the "poles" and from the "east".
Coriolis Effect
The Earth's rotation affects the movement of the winds.
The Coriolis Effect is the curving of moving objects, such as wind, by the Earth's rotation.
Northern Hemisphere - curve to the right.
Southern Hemisphere - curve to the left.
Pressure Belts
Areas of high or low pressure that occur at about every 30° of latitude.
Horse Latitudes
Doldrums
Areas of low pressure around the equator.
This where the trade winds meet.
There is little wind because of warm air rising.
Doldrums mean "foolish" in Old English.
Areas of high pressure around 30° N and 30° S where the winds are weak.
When sailors would sail into these latitudes they would have to throw the horses overboard to save resources.
Polar Front
Areas of low pressure at 60° N and 60° S.
As the cold air from the poles moves across the land, it warms and creates a low pressure belt.
Poles
At north and south poles, there is cold air, so it is a high pressure "belt" (a very small belt"!)
The cold air sinks and moves away from the poles.
Jet Streams
These are areas of high speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
They do not follow regular paths around the Earth.
The winds can reach up to 500 km/h.
These can affect the movement of storms.
They can help in flying.
Cross section of the Jet Streams
Local Winds
These winds are influenced by geography, like shorelines and mountains.
Examples: sea and land breezes , mountain and valley breezes.
Sea and Land Breezes
Mountain and Valley Breezes
Valley Breeze
The sun heats the valley and the air near it during the day. The warm air moves up from the valley.
Mountain Breeze
At night, mountains cool faster than the valley. Cold air sinks from the top of the mountain to the valley.
Picture of Global Winds and Pressure Belts
The End
A real life example of the Coriolis Effect
Sea Breezes
Click on this link to learn more about sea breezes:
Land Breezes
Click on this link to learn more about land breezes:
Wind Video
Bill Nye Wind Video
What is the Coriolis Effect? Video
Sea Breezes Website

Sea Breezes Website

http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/home.rxml

Then scroll down and click on Online Guides, then click on Meteorology, then click on Forces and Winds, then click on Land Breezes.

Land Breezes Website

http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/home.rxml

Then scroll down and click on Online Guides, then click on Meteorology, then click on Forces and Winds, then click on Sea Breezes.
Full transcript