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Anglo Saxon History: Weaponry and Vikings

English Project Chuang, Durden, Holder, Ngyugen
by

Christine Chuang

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Anglo Saxon History: Weaponry and Vikings

Viking weapons
The Vikings fought using long swords and axes. A good sword was handed down from father to son, but Vikings also buried weapons with their owner when he died. Wood rots and metal rusts away after a thousand years or more in the ground, but some remains show what the weapons were like. Vikings did not wear much armor, though some chieftains wore mail coats. Most relied on a round wooden shields for protection. On their heads, they wore helmets made of leather or iron. A Viking saying was, 'Never leave your weapons behind when you go to work in the fields - you may need them'.


Viking Ships
Paraphrased by Phillip Nguyen
The Ships
Viking ships, colloquially known as longships were so-called for their thin, elongated hulls and were renowned for their fine craftsmanship, speed, and maneuverability. Aside from the obvious transportation purpose, these longships served as troop transports and raider ships. They could easily reach up to 14 knots and didn’t demand as much wood or labor than other ship styles. These ships heavily contributed to the Vikings’ success. Drekar or dragon ships were especially fast ships used to stealthily creep upon enemy shores to invade port cities silently as well as to sneak up to enemy ships to board them. Not only were they fast but they could also carry a good number of men as well as exploit both oars and sails to boost their speed.

The Faering, meaning ‘four oars’ as in the number of oars used to propel it, were not longships but were indeed very commonly used by Vikings. While not a raiding ship like their bigger brothers, the faerings had an important function to ferry men across small bodies of water such as the fjords common in Scandinavia while still being feasibly small and relatively easy to craft. It could go in deeper waters but would often fill with water; the rowers often had to wear special shoes to keep themselves from getting sick (influenza, trench foot, and whatnot). Faerings were often actually quite spacious and had more than enough room for four people and their cargo. The position for rowing was quite relaxing. It was possible to fit even six or seven people aboard if the weather was right. Some faerings could be equipped with sails to travel the seas though this was quite dangerous.

The Knarr were medium-sized ships, a cross between the Faering and the Drekar if you will. They were sea faring and always had sails and anchors unlike faerings. Their hull design was a bit wider than the Drekar. This was because knarrs were cargo ships rather not raiding ships. They had fewer men but often actually traveled further than most Drekar ever did and had somewhat a more important purpose. Trading. Evidence for their ocean faring is in its design, its walls are taller so that when on the ocean and the ship bobs, water doesn’t get in and supplies don’t fall off.
Construction
Rather than using saws to cut the wood to length, the Viking shipbuilders used axes to cut planks into long strips which were joined together to the keel in the middle using iron nails. They would overlap boards to shape the aerodynamic (or hydrodynamic in this case) hull reminiscent of the old Greek triremes and to give it adequate strength and protection for the cold and rough seas to the north.

The Viking longships used both sails and oars to move, the tiller (which steered the boat) didn’t require a great amount of effort like on other ships, it was actually often too sensitive so the steersman had to have a steady hand.

Works cited (use hanging indents)
Hadingham, Evan. "Secrets of Viking Ships." PBS. PBS, 09 May 2000. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/viking-ships.html>.
"Viking Ships and Their Use." Regia Anglorum -. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.regia.org/ships/Ships2.htm>. Viking Raids Viking Ships Viking Weaponry Christopher Holder Christine Chuang Cristian Durdan Phillip Ngyugen VIKING RAIDS dfdg fgvcx The Vikings or Norsemen consisted of Danes, Swedes and Norwegians The earliest documented raids by the Vikings began in 793 at Lindisfarne, England. The vikings travelled across the Baltic sea, in what are call longships and attacked the east coast of England and France. Viking longships were renowned for their fine craftmanship, speed, and maneuverability. They could easily reach up to 14 knots and didn't demand as much wood or labor as other modern ships at the time. This is a recreation of the
viking longship, drekar They were used specifically
during viking raids to stealthily creep upon
enemy shores to invade port cities Drekar or "Dragon ships"
were the fastest viking ships.
Not only were they fast, but they could also carry a good number of men as well as exploit oars and sails to boost their speed. Viking raids Types of Viking Ships: Drekar, Dragon ships Faering, Four Oars Longships Faering, meaning "four oars" as in the
number of oars used to propel the boat were
not longships but were indeed very
commonly used by vikings.
The Faerings were rowboats used to
ferry men across small bodies of water. Anglo Saxon Weaponry Faering Historians have catergorized the viking raids into three specific time frames 790-840 The raids increased in
number, size, intensity and speed.
The vikings raided monasteries, villages, and farms. They ravaged the lands 2nd 3rd my attempt of a
Knarr Practically like the Hybrids of the
middle ages The Knarr were medium sized ships,
a cross between the Faerings and the Drekars. They were used as cargo ships and could carry up to 6-8 men. "The Inception" "The Expansion" "Colonization" In the third phase vikings began to colonize England and France. The vikings permanently settled in lands they had raided such as Ireland, Iceland, and areas in Russia around Novgorod and Kiev. 876-911 841-875 The vikings descended from the north onto Europe. They struck Europe hard with an array of surpise attacks called raids.Vikings used surprise raids on coastal locations to strike terror into their victims. 1st Shields Later in the eleventh century shields were lengthened
to be able to cover the upper leg, known as kite shields Swords
The greater the rank of warrior, the greater the sword varied from about 70-80cm Swords were passed down from generation to generation The sword was often used as a secondary
weapon for close combat after their spears
had been used. Ships Yay Hybrids! Spears Knarr Denmark Sweden Norway Diameter of 45-120cm. Axes
Most often small hand axes were used than longer and heavier ones.
The sizes varied from lengths of about 60-90cm. long
Blade widths ranging from 75-150cm. wide.
One of the more popular of these was the "skeggox" which had a particularly long lower edge on the blade.
Some axes were designed for throwing while other, which much bigger, were designed to be used with both hands as the primary weapon suCh as the halberd Medium Small Large Knarr, This is my attempt
at a viking longship
Drekar
Spears were made of a broad-leafed or spiked point of iron which was
bolted on to a 3-6ft wooden shaft. Spears Very traditional It was the main weapon during battle whereas; a warrior's sword was used after his spear was no longer availabe. Levick, Ben."Http://www.ftech.net/"regia/weapons.htm." Arms and Armour of the Anglo-Saxon and Viking Age. Regia Anglorum Publictions, 7 Jan. 1997. Web. 02 Sept. 2012.<http://mhan.wonkwang.ac.kr/link/med/war/weapon//weapon/weapons.htm> Hadingham, Evan. "Secrets of Viking Ships." PBS. PBS, 09 May 2000. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/viking-ships.html>.
"Viking Ships and Their Use." Regia Anglorum -. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.regia.org/ships/Ships2.htm>. weapons ships Work Cited Axes These are used mainly for hunting.
These are more widespread among Vidings.
Made of yew, elm, or ash.
Bodkins - armor piercing arrows.
These bows and arrows became known in the 11th century.
◦Traditional weapon of Woden
◦Types:
Javelin (used for throwing)
Angon (Special type) - It sticks to the shield as it bends, rending it useless.
Thrusting spear
Winged Spear
◦Advantage: There is no change in the hand position since the fighting position and throwing position are both the same. They both use the overhand or over the shoulder method. Scramaseax: A single-edged knife that usually represents a sense of freedom.
Hadseax - These are for everyday use.
Langseax - These ended in a deadly needle point.
It can be used for combat or hunting.. ◦Mail
■Not chainmail (invented by Victorians)
■Made of thin strips of iron, not chains.
■Difference between chainmail and regular mail.
◦Helmets
■Use continued to 10th century in Scandinavia •Armour Bows and Arrows: Knives
■Flat or “watchglass” shaped
■wooden/metal bands
■Faced with leather or rawhide.
■Good at “trapping” spears.
This plays back to the spears’ ability to impale itself into the shield.
This one action can cancel out both the spear and the shield which render them useless. By using this strategy, the first side to have the faster contingency plan would be the victor.
Viking Ships
•Spear
◦Main weapon of the period. For all social classes.
◦Traditional weapon of Woden
◦Types:
■Javelin (used for throwing)
•Angon (Special type) - It sticks to the shield as it bends, rending it useless.
■Thrusting spear
■Winged Spear
◦Advantage: There is no change in the hand position since the fighting position and throwing position are both the same. They both use the overhand or over the shoulder method. Thank you for your
Time & Attention Please enjoy the following video
on the "Vikings Invasion of Europe" Anglo Saxons and Sources
http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/link/med/war/weapon/weapon/weapons.htm - Weapons/Armory
http://www.great-britain.co.uk/history/ang-sax.htm - Viking raids
http://www.regia.org/ships/Ships2.htm - viking ships
http://www.englandandenglishhistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12&Itemid=28 - More about raids.

"Http://www.ftech.net/~regia/weapons.htm." Arms and Armour of the Anglo-Saxon and Viking Age. N.p., 1995. Web. 30 Aug. 2012. <http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/link/med/war/weapon/weapon/weapons.htm>.
Siddorn, Kim. "Viking Ships and Their Use." Regia Anglorum -. N.p., 2002. Web. 30 Aug. 2012. <http://www.regia.org/ships/Ships2.htm>.
"The Anglo Saxons." Elements of Literature. Essentials of British and World Literature. Ed. Kristine E. Marshall. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2006. 39. Print. Christopher Holder Cristian Durden Christine Chuang Phillip Nguyen Produced By: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMg3w6x2Ch4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMg3w6x2Ch4 Viking European Raids and Mr Hoey Thanks for giving us such an amazing reseach topic
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