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Logical Fallacies

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Ahmed Adly

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Logical Fallacies an argument consists of one or more premises and one conclusion. A premise is a statement that is offered in support of the claim being made, which is the conclusion A fallacy is, very generally, an error in reasoning. A premise is a statement (a sentence that is either true or false) that is offered in support of the claim being made, which is the conclusion A premise is a statement (a sentence that is either true or false) that is offered in support of the claim being made, which is the conclusion. A fallacy is, very generally, an error in reasoning . When someone adopts a position, or tries to persuade someone else to adopt a position. Logical fallacies are like tricks or illusions of thought, and they're often very sneakily used by politicians and the media to fool people. Taxonomy of Fallacies You attacked your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument. Ad Hominem You presented two alternative states as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist. Black or White (False Dilemma) You misrepresented someone's argument to make it easier to attack By exaggerating, or just completely fabricating someone's argument. Straw Man You used a double meaning or ambiguity of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth. Ambiguity You assumed that one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it; or that the whole must apply to its parts. composition/division You argued that because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good or ideal. Appeal to Nature Many natural things are also considered good, and this can bias our thinking; but naturalness itself doesn't make something good or bad. Using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of a sound argument or compelling evidence. Anecdotal You claimed that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes must be the truth. Middle Ground Slippery Slope A fallacy in which a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question.

This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough. Hasty Generalization You said that because an authority thinks something, it must therefore be true.
Note: this fallacy should not be used to dismiss the claims of experts. Appeal to Authority Example: "93% of scientists are atheists" this really does nothing to show that atheism is true. Example: After Will said that we should put more money into health and education, Warren responded by saying that he was surprised that Will hates our country so much that he wants to leave it defenceless by cutting military spending. Don't be fooled! Why bother to learn more about logic and arguments? You attempted to manipulate an emotional response(fear, envy, hatred, pity, pride,etc) in place of a valid or compelling argument. Appeal to Emotion When you create logically unsound arguments, you are much less likely to convince people that you have a valid point to make, or get them to agree with you. Even if they aren't familiar with logic, many people will realize that there is something wrong with some fallacious arguments without being able to identify the fallacy involved. Presented by : Ahmed Adly Agenda: *Introduction to Logical Fallacies.
*Common Logical Fallacies.
*Why bother to learn more about logic and arguments?
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