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Transcript of adjustments mechanisms
ADJUSTMENT TYPES OF ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT
MECHANISM CHARACTERISTICS OF ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM The term adjustment refers to the extent to which an individual's personality functions effectively in the world of people. It refers to the harmonious relationship between the person and the environment. In other words, it is the relationship that comes among the organisms, the environment and the personality. •Adjustment as an Achievement. Adjustment mechanisms Normal Adjustment Marcial A. Mameta A well-adjusted personality is well prepared to play the roles which are expected of the status assigned to him with in given environment. His needs will be satisfied in accordance with the social needs. Psychologists have interpreted adjustment from two important points of view. •Adjustment as a process. PROCESS Differences ACHIEVEMENT Adjustment as an achievement means how effectively an individual could perform his duties in different circumstances. Business, military education and other social activities need efficient and well-adjusted men for the progress and wellbeing of the nation. If we interpret adjustment as achievement then we will have to set the criteria to judge the quality of adjustment. Adjustment as a process is of major importance for psychologists, teachers and parents. To analyze the process we should study the development of an individual longitudinally from his birth onwards. The child, at the time of his birth is absolutely dependent on others for the satisfaction of his needs, but gradually with age he learns to control his needs. His adjustment largely depends on his interaction with the external environment in which he lives. When the child is born, the world for him is a big buzzing, blooming confusion. He cannot differentiate among the various objects of his environment but as he matures he comes to learn to articulate the details of his environment through the process of sensation, perception, and conception. Adjustment mechanism is almost used by all people. They are ideas which are inferred from the behavior of the individuals. All mechanisms are used to protect or enhance the persons self esteemed against dangers. They increase satisfaction and help in the process of adjustment if used with in limit.
The danger is always with in the person. He fears his own motives. The fear and danger are manifested in adjustment mechanism.The overall effect of adjustment mechanism is to cripple the individual's functioning and development through falsifying some aspects of his impulses so that he is deprived of accurate self knowledge as a basis for action. Adjustment is the relationship which comes to be established between the individual and the environment. Every individual plays certain position in his social relations. He is trained to play his role in such a way that his maximum needs will be fulfilled. So, he should play his role properly and get maximum satisfaction. If he does not play his role according to standards and training Home Environment received his needs may not be fulfilled and he may get frustrated. Abnormal Adjustment NORMAL ADJUSTMENT When a relationship between an individual and his environment is according to established norms then that relationship is considered as normal adjustment. A child who obey his parents, who is not unduly stubborn; who studies regularly and has neat habit is considered adjusted. ABNORMAL ADJUSTMENT Abnormal Adjustment means problem behavior or popular speaking maladjustment. Maladjustment takes place when the relationship between an individual and his environment is not according to established standards or norms. A delinquent child adjusts with his environment but he is a maladjusted child because he is violating certain moral codes. An adjustment mechanism may be defined as "any habitual method of overcoming blocks, reaching goals, satisfying motives, relieving frustrations and maintains equilibrium”. Adjustment mechanism is a device by which an individual reduces his tensions or anxiety in order to adjust himself properly with the environment. It helps him to regain his mental health. To solve his problems or to meet conflicting situations a child's uses certain self adjustive, self-defensive approaches which may protect him from his frustactive situations. These are called defense mechanism. For e.g. A child is trained to sleep throughout the night without asking for milk. A child who plays his role successfully gets love and emotional security from his mother and he adjusts well to his home environment.On the other hand, if the child does not sleep properly and carries on his infantile role, he may get scolding and spanking from his mother. He may not be looked after properly and his mother's attitude may become indifferent and formal about him. Naturally the child may feel frustration. For e.g. Once the child learns that while he is sleeping, his mother does not remain with him, his first reaction may be of frustration, then he may accommodate and later on, he may assimilate in the situation so completely that he may accept it ads life and he may not mind his mother’s going out of his room while he is awake. The conscious and the rational method are known as direct method and unconscious method is known as indirect method. Defense Mechanism Rationalization Projection Substitution Identification Sublimation Daydreaming Regression In psychology and logic, rationalization (also known as making excuses) is an unconscious defense mechanism in which perceived controversial behaviors or feelings are logically justified and explained in a rational or logical manner in order to avoid any true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable – or even admirable and superior – by plausible means. Rationalization encourages irrational or unacceptable behavior, motives, or feelings and often involves ad hoc hypothesizing. This process ranges from fully conscious (e.g. to present an external defense against ridicule from others) to mostly subconscious (e.g. to create a block against internal feelings of guilt). Rationalization Projection Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. For example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you. Projection works by allowing the expression of the desire or impulse, but in a way that the ego cannot recognize, therefore reducing anxiety. Substitution / Displacements In displacement, the person redirects his impulses (commonly anger) from the real target (because that target is too dangerous) to a safer but innocent person. Have ever had a really bad day at work and then gone home and taken out your frustration on family and friends? Then you have experienced the ego defense mechanism of displacement. Displacement involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening. Displaced aggression is a common example of this defense mechanism. Rather than express our anger in ways that could lead to negative consequences (like arguing with our boss), we instead express our anger towards a person or object that poses no threat (such as our spouse, children or pets). Identification an unconscious defense mechanism by which a person patterns his or her personality on that of another person, assuming the person's qualities, characteristics, and actions. The process is a normal function of personality development and learning, specifically of the superego, and it contributes to the acquisition of interests and ideals. Identification first occurs in early childhood when 3- to 5-year-olds identify with parental same-sex figures. It resurges in adolescence as a major task of identifying with peers.
Example: An adolescent girl begins to dress and act like her favorite pop star. Sublimation is a defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration. Freud believed that sublimation was a sign of maturity that allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways. Daydreaming refers to creation of unrealistic or improbable images as a way of escaping from daily pressures and responsibilities or to relieve boredom.
Example: A person may daydream excessively, watch TV for hours on end, or imagine being highly successful when he feels unsuccessful. Engaging in such activities makes him feel better for a brief period. Regression Under stress, a person may regress by returning to the behaviors he used in an earlier, more comfortable time in his life.
Example: A previously toilet-trained preschool child begins to wet his bed every night after his baby brother is born. Repression Repression Repression refers to unconsciously blocking out painful or unacceptable thoughts and feelings, leaving them to operate in the subconscious.
Example: A woman who was sexually abused as a young child can’t remember the abuse but experiences uneasy feelings when she goes near the place where the abuse occurred.