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Tissues of the Body

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Amanda Lavin

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Tissues of the Body

Tissues of the Body
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Connective tissues bind structures, provide support and protection, serve as frameworks, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infections, and help repair tissue damage.
Areolar tissue is found throughout the body and binds the organs.
Areolar tissue binds the skin to underlying organs and provides spaces between organs and muscles.

Areolar
Tissue
Where is it located?
What does it look like?
Adipose
Tissue

What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Adipose tissue, or fat, lies beneath the skin, in places between muscles, around the kidneys, behind the eyeballs, in certain abdominal membranes (female-subcutaneous, male-visceral fat) the surface of the heart, and around certain joints.

What is the function?
Adipose tissue cushions joints and some organs, such as the kidneys. It also insulates beneath the skin, and it stores energy in fat molecules.
Fibrous Connective tissue
What does it look like?
Fibrous tissue consists of many closely packed, thick, collagenous fibers and a fine network of elatic fibers. It has few cells, most of which are fibroblasts.
Where is it located?
Fibrous connective tissue often binds body parts in the form of tendons (connecting muscle to bone) and ligaments, (connecting bone to bone.) This type of tissue is also in the protective white layer of the eyeball and in the deeper skin layers.
What is the function?
Fibrous connective tissues are dense and very strong, enabling the tissue to withstand pulling forces. The blood supply to this tissue is poor, which slows tissue repair.
Hyaline Cartilage
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Hyaline cartilage is found on the ends of bones in many joints, in the soft part of the nose, and in the supporting rings of the respiratory passages.
What is the function?
Elastic tissue
What does it look like?
Elastic cartilage has a dense network of elastic fibers and is more flexible than hyaline cartilage.
Where is it located?
Elastic cartilage is found in the external ears and also in parts of the larynx.
What is the function?
Elastic cartilage provides the framework for the external ears and parts of the larynx. It is flexible and has elasticity.
Fibrocartartilage
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Fibrocartilage forms the pads (intervertebral discs) between the individual bones (vertebrae) of the spinal column. It also cushions bones in the knees and in the pelvic girdle.
What is the function?
Fibrocartilage supports and acts as a shock absorber for structures that are subjected to pressure.
Bone tissue
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Bone tissue is found in the skeleton.
What is the function?
Bone tissue is the most rigid connective tissue. Its hardness is largely due to mineral salts, such as calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate, between cells. Bone tissue internally supports the body structures. It protects vital parts in the cranial and thoracic cavities, and is an attachment for muscles. Bone matrix is deposited in thin layers called lamellae, which form patterns around tiny tubes called Haversian canals.
Blood
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Blood is found circulating throughout the body.
What is the function?
Blood transports a variety of materials, like gases, oxygen, glucose, white blood cells, platelts, hormones, and amino acids between interior body cells and those that exchange substances with the external environment. In this way, blood helps maintain stable internal environmental conditions.
Adipose tissue cells contain large fat droplets that push the nuclei close to the cell membranes.
In this presentation we will be exploring the four basic types of tissues.
Connective

Epithelial
Nervous
Muscular

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Epithelial
What does it look like?
Where is it loctated?
Simple squamous epithelium lines the air sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. It also forms the walls of capillaries, lines the insides of blood and lymph vessels, and covers the membranes that line body cavities.
What is the function?
Simple squamous provides a site for diffusion and filtration.
Simple Squamous
Simple squamous epithelium consists of a single layer of thin, flattened cells. Because it is so thin and delicate, it is easily damaged.
What does it look like?
Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells. These cells usually have centrally located, spherical nuclei.
Where is it located?
Simple cuboidal epithelium covers the ovaries and lines most of the kidney tubules and the ducts of certain glands, where the free surface faces the lumen. It also covers the surface of ovaries.
What is the function?
In the kidneys, this tissue functions in secretion and absorption; in glands, it secretes glandular products.
Simple Cuboidal
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Simple columnar epithelium that is ciliated exists in the female reproductive tract, where cilia aid in moving the egg cell through the uterine tube to the uterus.
What is the function?
Because the cells are elongated, this tissue is thick, which enables it to protect underlying tissues. Simple columnar epithelium also produce enzymes, secretes digestive fluids and absorbs nutrients from digested food. Some columnar cells (involved in absorption) have microvilli.
Simple Columnar
Simple columnar epithelium cells are elongated. This tissue is composed of a single layer of cells with elongated nuclei usually located at about the same level, near the basement of the membrane. The cells of this tissue can be ciliated or nonciliated.
Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines the uterus and portions of the digestive tract, including the stomach and the small and large intestines.
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
The pseudostratefied columnar epithelium lines the passages of the respiratory system (trachea and all air passages). Here, the mucus-covered linings are sticky and trap dust and microorganisms that enter with the air. The cilia move the mucus and its captured particles upward and out of the airways.
What is the function?
Goblet cells scattered throughout this tissue secrete mucus, which the cilia sweep away. Thus its primary function is secretion.
Pseudostratisfied
The cells of pseudostratefied columnar epithelium appear to be stratified or layered, but they are not. Instead the nuclei lie at two or more levels in the row of aligned cells. These cells commonly have cilia, which extend from the free surfaces of the cells.
What does it look like?
Stratified squamous epithelium forms the outer layer of the skin.
What is the function?
As skin cells age they accumulate keratin and then harden and die. This "keratinization" produces a covering of dry, tough, protective material that prevents water and other substances from escaping underlying tissues and blocks various chemicals and microorganisms from entering. Thus its purpose if for protection.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium have many layers that make it relatively thick. Cells divide into deeper layers, and newer cells push older ones farther outward, where they flatten.
Where is it located?
What does it look like?
Where is it located?
Transitional epithelium forms the inner lining of the urinary bladder and lines the utreters and the superior urethra.
What is the function?
Transitional
Transitional epithelium is specialized to change in response to increased tension. The cells of this tissue can either stretch or remain unstretched in response to the organs. It serves to form a barrier that helps prevent the contents of the urinary bladder from diffusing back into the internal environment.
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#4
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#8
Hyaline cartilage has very fine collagenous fibers in its extracellular matrix and looks somewhat like white glass.
Hyaline cartilage supports movement in the joints and supports pushing and pulling.
The extracellular matrix in bone tissue has many collagenous fibers which are flexible and reinforce the mineral components of bone.
Blood is composed of formed elements suspended in a fluid extracellular mix called blood plasma.
Fibrocartilage is a very tough tissue that has many collagenous fibers.
To the left is a picture of the transitional tissue when it is unstretched.
To the right is a picture of when the transitional tissue is stretched.
Epithelial tissues are found throughout the body. Epithelium covers organs, forms the inner lining of body cavities, and lines hollow organs. It always has a free surface exposed to the outside or internally to an open space. As a rule, epithelial tissues lack blood vessels.
Nervous tissues are found in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
In addition to neurons, nervous tissue includes neuroglia. Neuroglia divide and are crucial to the functioning of neurons. These cells support and bind the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels. They also play a role in cell-to-cell communication.
Nervous Tissue
Neurons
Neurons transmit electrical pulses along axons to coordinate, regulate, and integrate many body functions.
Neuroglia
Muscular Tissue
Approximately 40% of the body is skeletal muscle and another 10% is smooth or cardiac muscle.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
What does it look like?
The long, threadlike cells of skeletal muscle tissue have alternating light and dark striations with many nuclei.
Where is it located?
Skeletal muscle tissue is found in muscles that usually attach to bones and can be controlled by conscious effort. For this reason it is often called voluntary muscle tissue.
What is the function?
The muscles built of skeletal muscle tissue move the head, trunk, and limbs. They enable us to make facial expressions, write, talk, sing, chew, swallow, and breathe.
Smooth Muscle Tissue
What does it look like?
Smooth muscle tissue consists of spindle-shaped cells, each with a large nucleus.
Where is it located?
Smooth muscle tissue composes the walls of hollow internal organs, such as the stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, uterus, and blood vessels. Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle cannot be stimulated to contract by conscious efforts, so its actions are involuntary.
What is the function?
Cells of the smooth muscle tissue do not have any striations, and each has a single centrally located nucleus. An example of the function of smooth muscle tissue would be the propulsion of food along the digestive tract.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
What does it look like?
Cardiac muscle cells are branched and interconnected, with a single nucleus.
Where is it located?
Cardiac muscle tissue is only found in the heart. Like smooth muscle tissue, cardiac is controlled involuntarily.
What is the function?
Cardiac muscle tissue is striated and each cell has a single nucleus. Where one cell touches another cell is a specialized intercellular junction called an intercalated disc. Cardiac muscle tissue regulates electromechanical messages.
What is the function?
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Areolar tissue contains numerous fibroblasts that produce collagenous and elastic fibers.
Dendrites
Cell body
Sending Neuron
Receiving Neuron
Axon
Nucleus
Full transcript