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Transcript of LEARNING & MEMORY: Mods 20-27

Module 20: Classical Conditioning

permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to
We learn by association-

Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence:
Aristotle 2000 years ago
John Locke 200 years ago
Associative Learning-
learning that two events occur together, two stimuli, a response and its consequences...past event and immediate future.
Classical Conditioning (MOD 20) -
we learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events.

Operant Conditioning (MOD 21)-
we learn to associate a response and its consequences and thus repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment.

Observational Learning (MOD 22)-
learn behaviors merely by observing others perform them.
Ivan Pavlov
- 1849-1936
Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
Nobel Prize in 1904
studied digestive secretions of dogs
Classical Conditioning
Organism comes to associate two stimuli - a
neutral stimulus
that signals an
unconditioned stimulus
begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned = Learned
Unconditioned = Unlearned
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that unconditionally--
--triggers a response.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
unlearned, naturally occurring
response to the unconditioned stimulus
...salivation when food is in the mouth.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally irrelevant
stimulus that,

with an
unconditioned stimulus,
comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned response
to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
Acquisition -
the initial stage in classical conditioning
the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response (more to come later)

John B. Watson - 1878-1958:
viewed psychology as
objective science.
generally agreed-upon consensus today
recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes
not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
Little Albert Experiment 1920
diminishing of a CR
in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS
in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar response
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS

Little Albert Experiment
Module 21: operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Subjects associate their behaviors with
behavior is
if followed by
if followed by
Basically, behavior will be
and will be
less likely
to be repeated if
Taste Aversions...
Difference between CC & OC:
Classical Conditioning
Respondent Behavior
or actions that occur as an
automatic response
to some stimulus or behavior

Operant Conditioning
Operant Behavior-
or actions that
on the
to produce
consequences in reaction to a stimuli.
Layman's Terms:
Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning

relies on
association between stimuli

Also -
Operant Conditioning
is based on
voluntary behavior
Classical Conditioning

often involves
involuntary reflexive behavior.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
He elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect and
developed behavioral technology
to test his ideas.
Law of Effect (1905)
Thorndike’s principle that
followed by
favorable consequences
more likely
, and
followed by
unfavorable consequences
less likely.
Starting point for Skinner (builds on the "obvious")

Skinner Box (operant chamber)
Was chamber with a bar or key that an animal
obtain a food or water (reinforcer)
The box contained a device to record responses.
Used this with rats and pigeons.
Explored the conditions that foster learning.
-operant conditioning procedure in which
guide behavior
toward closer approximations of a desired goal.

- any event that
the behavior it follows (wide range of things).
Skinner’s concept of reinforcement:
Any event that increases the frequency of a preceding response
Can be a tangible reward like praise, attention, or money (older)
Can be an activity like borrowing a car, watching TV, or getting a break (younger)
Principles of Reinforcement
Primary Reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus
i.e., satisfies a biological need
Getting food, relieved of shock
Conditioned Reinforcer
stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer
secondary reinforcer
Light that signals food, money, good grades, words of praise
Positive Reinforcement
adds a positive stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
remove an averse stimulus.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Immediate vs Delayed
Continuous vs Partial
Fixed Ratio (FR)
Variable Ratio (VR)
Fixed Interval (FI)
Variable Interval (VI)
aversive event that
the behavior that it follows
(opposite of reinforcement, which strengthens a behavior).
Administer and undesirable consequence or withdraw a desirable one, a powerful controller of unwanted behavior!
often does not guide
one toward more desirable behavior.
Punishment tells you what not to do;
reinforcement tells you what to do
Punishment must be
with reinforcement
Most psychologists favor an emphasis on reinforcement rather than on punishment
Cognitive Map
is a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment.
Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

Latent Learning

learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
* shows that learning can occur without reinforcement or punishment! *

- desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective...work and play seeking enjoyment, interest, self-expression, or challenge.
- desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
Overjustification Effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do
the person may now see the reward (extrinsic), rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
Module 22 : Learning by Observation

Conditioning principles alone do not tell the whole story, we also learn by observing others.
Modeling -
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior: ideas, fashions, habits, traditions, vices, foods, etc...

Mirror Neurons
Recently discovered by neuroscientists
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
9 months infants will imitate novel play behaviors
14 months will imitate acts modeled on television

"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately,
most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling
: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information
serves as a guide
for action.“
-Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977

While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.
His theory added a
social element
, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people.
Social Learning Theory
Three Core Concepts
#1. People can learn through observation.
#2. Internal mental states are an essential part of this process. (self-efficacy - self belief)
#3. Just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.
Albert Bandura’s Experiments
Bobo Doll (1961)
we look and we learn
Compared with children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed adult models lashing out were more likely to lash out at the doll
Applications of Observational Learning
Antisocial Behavior:
from one’s family, neighborhood, or TV may have antisocial effects.

Prosocial Behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. both drew on principles of modeling non-violent behavior
Best models are
consistent in actions and words

TV and Observational Learning
During their first
18 years
, most children in developed countries spend
more time
watching TV than they spend in school.
9 in 10
teens watch TV daily; someone who lives to 75 will spend
9 years
sitting home watching television.
of homes have
three or more
Parent reports of what their children watch hardly correlates with children’s reports of what they watch.
Does the reel world reflect the real world?
TV’s greatest effect may stem from what it displaces.
What could we all do with our extra time if we never watched television/media?

Don't Forget -
Correlation does not prove causation!

= Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Flashbulb Memory
- a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Memory Processing
is very similar to that of an information processor of a
To name the 7 Dwarfs correctly we use:
Atkinson & Shiffrin’s

3 Stages of Processing Memory
- the processing of information into the memory system.
- the retention of encoded information over time.
- process of getting information out of memory.
Sensory Memory
- the
initial recording
of sensory information in the memory system.

Working Memory
- focuses more on the
briefly stored
Short-Term Memory
- activated memory that holds a few items briefly.
~ Clive Wearing Study ~
~ Memento ~
Long-Term Memory
- the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Simplified memory model
Module 23:
Introduction to Memory
Module 24 Encoding:
Getting Information In

Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy,
Smiley, Jumpy, Hopeful, Shy, Droopy, Dopey, Sniffy, Wishful, Puffy, Dumpy, Sneezy, Lazy, Pop, Grumpy, Bashful, Cheerful, Teach, Shorty, Nifty, Happy, Doc, Wheezy, and Stubby

Automatic Processing:
unconscious encoding of incidental information (can’t switch on or off at will)
Space (remember textbook page during test)
Time (remember days events to find something)
Frequency (third time you passed a friend)
well-learned information
Hear or read familiar word (native language)
we can learn automatic processing
reading backwards (students of Hebrew)
Effortful Processing -
requires attention and conscious effort to encode info for storage.
Rehearsal - conscious repetition of information...
to maintain it in consciousness
to encode it for storage
“practice makes perfect”
“Next in line effect”- poorest memory of person before us.
Focused on own performance.
Information seconds before falling asleep seldom remembered.
Hour before is well remembered.
Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
used nonsense syllables
the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2
compared with learning nonsense material,
learning meaningful material required
the effort.
We have excellent recall of information we can relate to ourselves.
You will profit from taking the extra time to find personal meaning in what you are studying.
Spacing Effect
distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice
(long term vs Cram!)
Quickly learn = quickly forget
Serial position effect
- 1st and last names or items on lists (primacy, recency)
Presidential Activity
What Do We Encode
Visual Versus
Auditory Encoded
Information Activity
Serial Position Effect Activity
Semantic Encoding
encoding of meaning
including meaning of words
Acoustic Encoding
encoding of sound
especially sound of words
“1492 Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue”
Visual Encoding
encoding of picture images
mental pictures
a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Rosy Retrospection
- recalling high points while forgetting low points (Disney trip, etc.)

Mnemonics (greek word for memory)
memory aids
especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
organizing items into familiar, manageable units
like horizontal organization
often occurs automatically
use of acronyms
--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
French Revolution
Hierarchies -
complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.
Module 25: Storage - Retaining Information

Sensory Memory-
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.

Working Memory-
focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information.
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli (fleeting photographic memory)
a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second
Can you remember the next three images?
Write them down

Echoic Memory-
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Unless we
encode or rehearse information, it quickly disappears.

active processing
, short term memories have a
short life
Short-Term Memory
limited in duration and capacity
“magical” number
Did our "Matrix Activity" Work?
Memories do not reside in specific spots
Short term recall slightly better for random digits than random letters.
Slightly better for info heard than seen.
At any given moment, we can consciously process only a very limited amount of information.
Lets test it out...
Long-Term Memory
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
Neural basis for learning and remembering
Strong emotions make for stronger memories
some stress hormones boost learning and retention
Arousal sears events onto the brain
Prolonged stress (combat) can corrode memories
the loss of memory
Explicit Memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
also called declarative memory
--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
also called procedural memory
frontal lobes
shown active in brain scans of people using memory.
Damage to hippocampus disrupts some types of memory (Clive Wearing)
Damage to left or right can produce different results
Left= verbal information
Right= visual designs and locations
Memories are not in one place.

Many brain regions are active as we encode, store, and retrieve different information.
Cerebellum involved in implicit memory
Module 26 Retrieval: Getting Information Out

To most people, memory is recall.
To a psychologist, memory is any sign that something learned has been retained.

So recognizing or more quickly relearning information also indicates memory.

measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
as on a fill-in-the blank test.

- Measure of memory in which the person has
to identify items previously learned (as on a multiple-choice test)

- memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time.

activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
“wakening of associations”
Tastes, smells, and sights often evoke our recall of associated episodes

Context effects
-put yourself back in the context where you experienced something.
Return to old house or old school and flooded
retrieval cues
and memories.
Even taking an exam in the same room you were taught can help.
Do you think we should take the AP exam in this room?
Deja Vu
(French)-already seen
cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience
of people report experiencing
Current situation may be loaded with cues that unconsciously retrieve earlier experiences.
"I've experienced this before."
Think back to the 4X6 Sleep Experiment

Mood-Congruent Memory
- tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood. Memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues.

State-Dependent Memory -
what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state.

Retrieval Cues
Mood also influences how we interpret other people’s behavior:
Bad mood- read someone’s look as a glare; good mood- same look as interest
Mood’s effects on retrieval helps explain why moods persist:
When happy, we recall the world as a happy place which helps prolong the good mood.
When depressed, you recall sad events.
For those suffering from depression this is a viscous cycle

Module 27: Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory

Daniel Schacter’s 7 Sins of Memory (1999)
Three Sins of Forgetting
1. Absent Mindedness
- inattention to details produces encoding failure (mind elsewhere when you put your keys down)
2. Transience
- storage decay over time (unused information fades)
3. Blocking
- inaccessibility of stored information (retrieval failure)

Three Sins of Distortion
4. Misattribution
- confusing the source of information (putting words in someone’s mouth/ attributing a story to someone else)
5. Suggestibility
- effects of misinformation (“Did Mr. Jones touch you?”)
6. Bias
- belief-colored recollections (someone’s current feeling towards spouse colors recalled initial feelings)

7. Persistence
- unwanted memories (being haunted by images of sexual assault, etc.)
Forgetting as encoding failure -
Information never enters long-term memory

can result from

to retrieve
information from
long-term memory.
Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information
Proactive (forward acting) Interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
New phone number or locker and old one interferes with new
Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference
disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
New students’ names interfere with recall of old
Forgetting can occur at any memory stage
As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose
of it
Motivated Forgetting
people unknowingly
How many times have you brushed your teeth in the past two weeks?
- defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Memory Construction
We filter information and fill in missing pieces
Misinformation Effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)
Memories of Abuse
Repressed or Constructed?
Child sexual abuse does occur
Some adults do actually forget such episodes
False Memory Syndrome
condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience
sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
Most people can agree on the following:
Injustice happens
Incest happens
Forgetting happens
Recovered memories are commonplace
Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable
Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable
Memories, whether false or real, are upsetting
Improve Your Memory
to boost recall
Spend more time
actively thinking
about the material
Make material
personally meaningful
retrieval cues
--mentally recreate situation and mood
Recall events while they are
-- before you encounter misinformation
Test your own knowledge
Memory Capacity activity

What did you just see?
You have 30 seconds to memorize the numbers on the next slide...good luck!
Music Volunteers - 4 of you!
Penny Activity
Prospective Memory

- the ability to remember to do something in the future. (remembering to return someone's phone call, or the time and day of your dentist appointment next week).
*** AP TEST ***




5 6
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
18 19 20 21 22/24 23 25
27 28 29
30 31
33 34

37 38 39
41 42 43 44
2 1 6 9 6 4 6 1 5 1 9 9 7 2 5
2 4 6 8 0 1 6 0 8 9 4 8 7 6 4
Sleep Activity...
False Memory Activity
Positive Reinforcer
- any event that
the behavior it follows (wide range of things).

Negative Reinforcer
- occurs when something already present is
(taken away) as a result of a person's behavior,
creating a favorable
outcome for that person.
Not a form of punishment!
Work with a partner to create a scenario that demonstrates
your understanding
Full transcript