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Chapter 2- When World's Collide
Transcript of Chapter 2- When World's Collide
pg 51 The Great Depression Level 2 1. Who were the "Sea Dogs"?
-English privateers who launched raids against the Spanish. The First Europeans in North America The Portuguese Exploration
Why did the portuguese explore the Atlantic Coast of Northwestern Africa?
A: For Gold and slave trade
A: The struggle during which Spanish Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from Muslims.
Compare and contrast the goal of the portuguese exploration and the goals of Columbus' exploration.
A: The portuguese established trade routes between other countries. Columbus' plan was to not only establish trade with other countries, but to also take over land of any island that was not occupied by a monarchy.
Predict how history would have played out if the Tainos people did not kill the men Columbus had left in the Indies.
A: The civilization would not have fell completely. Many of their people would have not been killed off like they did by Columbus and his men. Also Some of those native cultures and traditions would possibly still be alive to this day. Level 1
Who is Ponce de Leon?
Ponce de Leon was the governor of Puerto Rico, and the first Spanish conquistador to extend the conquest to North America in 1513. Level 1: Describe the Indies. Columbus thought he was going to the Indies which is Southeast asia. The Americas were called the West Indies before they realized they were not in Asia. Explain the Treaty of Tordesillas.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty negotiated by the pope in 1494 to resolve the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal. 1. What new world crop became a staple in the Mediterranean? Level 2: Explain why the American Indians failed to defend their land Maize, or corn. 1. Define the Encomienda
-The process in which natives were compelled to labor in the service of spanish lords, in a system of feudalism. Level One Protestant Reformation began when Martin Luther revolted against the Roman Catholic Church. He declared that eternal salvation was a gift from God and not related to works or service. One reason for the decrease in American Indians was the slaughtering brought on by the Europeans. But other reasons were the mixing of races. Spanish women only made up about 10% of population in the sixteenth century so there were many marriages between the Spanish men and either Native Americans or Africans. These mixed-ancestry families maintained population, but decreased the races that were 100% there own. Level 3 Evaluate figure 2-2 on page 46 and analyze the causes of the decrease of American Indians in Spanish colonies. The Spanish New World Empire
Pg. 36 Translate the workings of the government in the
The colonies were seemingly a "centralized and bureaucratic system" ruled by the king who was still in Spain. But leadership was hard to maintain across the ocean, so there were many tolerances given to the colonies when it came to governing themselves. Define Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation and the First French Colonies. Pg. 48 Level Two 2. Sequence Richard Hakluyt's advantages that would come from the colonies.
- provide bases from which to invade the Spanish, outposts for Indian markets, plantations for tropical products, freeing dependence on Asian markets. 3. Analyze how the English approach to the New world was more effective than the French.
- While the French focused more on commerce, the English worked on attempting to dominate and conquer the natives which allowed them to learn more about the land and how to navigate it. Level Three Analyze the cause and effects of the Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reaction to the Catholic Church's oppression on people. This inspired the development of Calvinism and the move of it to France, as well as the move of Huguenot colonies (A group of Calvin's followers) to America. When these colonies settled in America the Spanish were alarmed and sent Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles to deal with the Huguenots. After the Huguenots were crushed Aviles and his men settled in St. Augustine. Overall Protestant Reformation caused the spreading of Protestant religion and people in Europe and North America. Predict what would have happened if the Spanish lost to the Huguenot colonies settled in Florida. If the Spanish soldiers had not defeated the Huguenots, then Calvinism may have prospered and the oldest settlement would have been French. This could have impacted Spain to send more soldiers in order to defeat the Huguenots, furthering resulting in the possibility of war. They did not have as advanced weapons as the English. Level 3: Predict what would have happened if the English had never come to America. They would have never interacted with the Indians. Therefore, we would have never had the Columbian Exchange. Describe humanism and it's significance in relation to the Renaissance. Contrast between life in Europe before the Black Death, and after the Black Death. Imagine living in the Middle Ages, how would you have made profit to support your family during this time? 2. Summarize how the Spanish dominated the caribbiean and the Americas in the early 16th century.
- The spanish of the 16th century first invaded the caribbean and dominated the islands there, enslaving the Bahamas until they were depopulated and depleted the gold of hispanola. On arrival in Mexico the Spanish made contact with the Aztec Empire, besieging them for months, however a epidemic of European smallpox annihilated the Aztec's military leaving it to spain. 2. How did the Europeans benefit from the Colombian Exchange? The Europeans discovered new, tropical crops which were worth a lot back in Europe. Some of these crops included tobacco, American vanilla, and chocolate. 3. Evaluate how the graph Figure 2-1 explains the population changes in North America. 3. Theorize what if Smallpox had not elimenated the Aztec millitary threat.
-The Spanish possibly could not have kept up with the Aztec Millitary machine and, by sheer numbers, be pushed off the continent, leading to obliteration of the Spanish expeditionary force, this could have slowed colonization of the Americas and led to larger armies being sent to the Americas, leading to armed conflicts of larger stature or even of colonization being postponed outright for another century, as costs would have been high. Level 2
Compare de Soto and Coronado's expiditions to America.
De Soto started out with twice as many men, and landed in Florida, while Coronado started with only 300 soldiers and marched up from Mexico. De Soto was also searching for an Aztec empire, and Coronado was searching for Cibola, a legendary city of gold. The graph depicts that as the number of colonials increased, the number of Native people decreased significantly. Level 3
If you were de Soto, how would you change your strategy in travelling America? Sixteenth Century England Level One Describe why "Bloody Mary" got her name.
Mary attempted to reverse her father's Reformation from the top by martyring hundreds of English Protestants, gaining the title of "Bloody Mary". Level Two Analyze the religious reformations that took place in England during the 16th century.
There were many reformations that targeted different religions. The fight was Catholic vs Protestant. King Henry VIII supported the Catholic Church and opposed the Protestants until 1534, when he broke off to create the Church of England because the Catholic Church would not allow for him to get an annulment. Other reformations include "Bloody Mary" and Elizabeth I. Elizabeth feared Spanish subversion on the neighboring Catholic island of Ireland and urged Walter Raleigh and Humphrey Gilbert to subdue the Irish Catholics and settle homeless English families on their land. Level Three Speculate how people lived
in fear during the 16th Century, when your king or queen changes and opposes different religions. Living in 16th Century England would be rough because you would constantly be worried about being martyred. You would not want to be very known because you might be the first to go because of your status. Of all the reformations, "Bloody Mary"
and Elizabeth I were the worst because they were the
only ones that really sought to kill the opposed
religions. Level 1 Level 2 Level 3