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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
Ease of Transportation
What is the Industrial Revolution ?
A series advances in technology advances
That heavily impact social, political and economic systems
Hundreds of thousands of people moved to cites
Factories needed large numbers of workers
People Living in Manchester
Revolution is often glorified
In truth is was over crowded ,with many families living in small apartment
Sot covered many of the towns
rural urban drift
Duke of Wellington
would encourage the lower classes to move about
In between aristocracy and working class
Grew rapidly during the revolution
New Universities being built, to cover business, architecture and engineering
Theology and Law most popular subjects
An education secured you a place in the Middle Class
Middle Class people valued hard work and sobriety
Heirs of the Enlightenment
Evolved from Protestant views
1869 coined Homosexuality
Work validated your middle class identity
Middle Class Women
Marriage a strong institution during this time
Lady of the House
Not to earn but to spend
Women were not to work
Charlotte and Emily Bronte, George Sand and George Eliot
The Spread of Industrialization
The Industrial Revolution took place over several decades in Britain in the late 18th century
Other European countries industrialized later but quicker due to government investment.
Technology developed rapidly. - Creation of railroads and steamships
crowded and unsanitary cities
Disruption of family life
Mid 19th century, the situation improved.
increase of affordable good
growth of the middle class
higher wages for industrial workers
In the late 18th century, British manufactured good entered continental European markets
European countries inspired by Britain
The countries were also alarmed - Strong economy = political power
What caused the delay?
Series of wars - The French revolution, Napoleonic Wars
Lacked peace and stability
People were more resistant to the idea - Believed it was " a threat to their livelihoods"
Water transport was less widely available ( more expensive than Britain)
Too poor to provide a market for mass produced industrial goods ( Not France)
First country on the continent to industrialize
Expanded from textile production to mining and iron production.
France did not want to follow Britain's example and took a different route in industrializing.
When Britain was making it's industrial take-off in the 1780's and 1790's, France exploded into a revolution.
During the Napoleonic war; communication ties with Britain were severed.
France began to industrialize after peace was restored.
France restricted British imports until the Eden Treaty of 1786
France's wealth and educational standards rivaled those in Britain.
France had the resources and the skill workers to industrialize
Honore Le Blanc ( French gunsmith) pioneered the use of interchangeable parts.- The innovation was not taken up in France but later was adopted by the American inventor Eli Whitney.
Joseph Marie Jacquard- invented the power-loom.
France traditionally concentrated on producing high-luxury items like silk, fine carpets and impressive furniture.
Skilled workers and entrepreneurs loathed the idea of mass production because it would produce cheap items.
Jacquard's power loom was destroyed by angry weavers.
Despite this hostile view; France did continue to industrialize.
Paris- produced modern textile factories
Lyon - Began to use Jacquard's loom in the silk industry.
Alsace- Lorraine- Region in North-Eastern France. Industrialization took part here prior to 1850.
1830's - 1st French railroads were built- railroads that traveled from France- Russia were constructed.
1850's- a person could travel from Paris to Brussels, Frankfurt, Bordeaux and Marseilles via Lyon.
Just across the English Channel- Had long commercial ties with Britain.
British goods first passed through Belgium
The country possessed building blocks, good communications by water, raw materials ( coal lumber, and iron ore.)
the country developed well-trained and skill workers and a supportive government.
Initially Prussia's developments were commercial rather than industrial
1834- Zollverein ( a custom's union) was established. This encouraged free-trade between German states.
Ruhr- Region in western Germany that was the center of industrial production and metal industry.
Saxony- Region in southeastern Germany (formally an independent kingdom was also important during this industrial period.
Werner Siemans- German Inventor- established first factory in Berlin in 1847
Friedrich Engels- Karl Marx's closest collaborator
and a son of a German industrialist who spent most of his life in England.
The Revolution in Transportation
George Stepenson- English railroad pioneer, inventor and engineer. He started the earliest locomotives and rail lines in the 1820s and 1830s.
John McAdam- Scottish engineer who was responsible for developing a technique to make the road less muddy and more harder.
- made it easy for country people to travel to the city in search for work
- being made out of iron instead of wood.
The Great Western and the Sirius
Used to import raw materials and manufactured goods through water transportation.
Critics of Industrialization
Why did it occur?
Innovations in cotton weaving
The Steam Engine
Dangers of the Cities
Young people coming from villages
Little returned home
worked for middle class houses
Women and Children
Needed to supply money to the family
Cheaper to hire whole families
1802 laws limiting child labour
1833 they were enforced
Prussia Child employment was banned 1839
France 1841 forbade the employment of children under the age of eight
Gears, transition belts
Injured meant you were fired
Fibers in the air
Loss of life and Limb was common
Philosopher, social scientist, historian
The Communist Manifesto- Denounced the Bourgeois society as hypocritical, exploitative and doomed for destruction
Termed his own thinking " scientific socialism" . He believed that only through violence would the
working class find justice.
Resistance and Trade Unions
British workers destroyed their machines in protest
1860 loom execution
Foremen were attacked
Working- Class Consciousness
Trade unions formed
Not only industrial but technological
Steel and Electricity
Break through in Chemistry
Factory produced clothing
Newspapers and Magazines
Department Stores- Bon Marche
Shopping becomes a pastime
Middle- class liberals - Elitists
Egalitarians - Believed all people should have equal rights in social, political and economic contexts
Political Radicalism - conflicting ideologies
Socialism vs. Liberalism
Aimed to spread wealth
Emphasized on individual's right to private property.
Claude Henri de Saint-Simon
Concept of Leisure
Concept of leisure was new & occurred when workers received " free-time" and the hours of work decreased to 10 hours
Alcohol consumption increased
Popular Amusements - cafes, dance halls
European population doubled from 200 million to 430 million
Magic Lantern -
Railroads and Tourism
Families and Feminism
Lived in appalling conditions
Families constantly working
Working class people often banned together
Taverns and Criminal Activity
Drinking was a way to escape
Pickpocketing and prostitution
Children were realized to be an economic burden
Medical advances reduced mortality rates
Use of contraception
Decrease in birth-rates. Remained high in less developed countries - Russia, Spain Italy
Middle-class women had less
children- sought higher education
Education still limited
Difficult for a women to earn her own living
Had little protection against abusive husband
Few women could afford the expense of a divorce trial
Friedrich Engels mocked the middle -class morality - " legalized form of enslavement and prostitution"
Middle class struggle
Struggle for equality.
Emmeline Pankhurst ( equal rights activist)- fought for women to vote
Feminists engaged in radical tactics- arson, vandalism,protests, hunger strikes
Attracted attention on the unequal rights
Artists worried mass production would devalue beautiful paintings
Questioning the need for realistic artworks
People still preferred traditional realism
Artists found themselves out of tune with the mass society.