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Transcript of Figurative Language
and Morgan Cravens Figurative Language Prose a form of language which applies ordinary grammatical structure and natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure Examples Poetry the art of rhythmical composition, written or spoken, for exciting pleasure by beautiful, imaginative, or elevated thoughts. Examples Allusion a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication: Examples Illusion something that deceives by producing a false or misleading impression of reality Examples Simile a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, Examples Metaphor a figure of speech in which a word or phrase denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest. Examples Extended Metaphor a metaphor introduced and then further developed throughout all or part of a literary work. Personification the representation of a thing or abstraction in the form of a person Examples Hyperbole a figure of speech involving exaggeration Example Irony mocking form of humor intended to convey the opposite of what is said Example Limerick a kind of humorous verse of five lines, in which the first, second, and fifth lines rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a rhymed couplet. Example Haiku a major form of Japanese verse, written in 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, and employing highly evocative allusions and comparisons Example Iambic Pentameter a common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable Example Example Genre a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, content, technique, or the like.... Example Lyric Poetry a type of emotional songlike poetry, distinguished from dramatic and narrative poetry Example 1. The Port by Charles Baudelaire.
A port is a delightful place of rest for a soul weary of life's battles. The vastness of the sky, the mobile architecture of the clouds, the changing coloration of the sea, the twinkling of the lights, are a prism marvelously fit to amuse the eyes without ever tiring them. The slender shapes of the ships with their complicated rigging, to which the surge lends harmonious oscillations, serve to sustain within the soul the taste for rhythm and beauty. Also, and above all, for the man who no longer possesses either curiosity or ambition, there is a kind of mysterious and aristocratic pleasure in contemplating, while lying on the belvedere or resting his elbows on the jetty-head, all these movements of men who are leaving and men who are returning, of those who still have the strength to will, the desire to travel or to enrich themselves. 1. Lily was tall like a giraffe.
2. Our coach is tough as nails when we don't win.
3. My cousin and I are like two peas in a pod.
4. The singer was as bold as brass.
5. Mrs. Quinn's instructions were as clear as crystal. 1. Dani's teeth were pearls.
2. The blanket of snow covered the streets in white.
3. Time is money.
4. His eyes were the ocean water.
5. Andy was left shocked by the stench of failure. 1. The large tree danced in the wind.
2. Our old house looked depressed.
3. The lahar raced down the indents of the volcano.
4. The hat flew off the shelf.
5. My poster laid calmly on my wall. 1. My mother had told me a million times not to play on the ice.
2. The track runner ran like a lightning bolt.
3. My little brother's brain is peas sized.
4. The suited man had tons of money in his wallet.
5. Gean's computer took a lifetime to load. Pun the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words Example Idiom expression or usage peculiar to language Example Dramatic Irony irony that is inherent or a situation of drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play Example Imagery figurative description or illustration; rhetorical images collectively Example Assonance resemblance of sound and word or syllables Example Alliteration repetition of a sound at the beginning of two neighboring words Example Stanza an arrangement of a certain number of lines usually four or more, sometimes having fixed length, meter, or rhyme scheme, forming a division of a poem. Example Free Verse verse that does not follow a mixed metrical pattern Example Symbol something used for or regarded as representing something, often something immaterial Example Style a particular, distinctive, or characteristic mode of action or manner of acting Example Theme 1. We all laughed at Jerry for tripping in the hallway until I did the same thing.
2. I can't go to Greece with my family because I have to study for my greek mythology test.
3. He named his Great Dane "Tiny."
4. The other day the local fire station burned down.
5. Maddie pass the final that she didn't study for. 1. There once was a boy named Kane,
who bought a new Great Dane,
it ripped up the floor,
it raced out the door,
and need to be professionally trained. 1. She is very "punny."
2. Mary wanted photographic memory, but it never developed.
3. He used to be a teacher, but he didn't have enough class.
4. What did the polar bear say to the penguin? Have an ice day.
5. Jim works as a barker because he kneads dough. 1. I was in a pickle after getting into the car accident.
2. My mother always told me that the early bird gets the worm.
3. Percy was all bark and no bite.
4. Her little brother was like a bull in a china shop.
5. The motto is if you snooze you lose. 1. Her eyes were as green as spring grass, as deep as the ocean, and as bright as a star.
2. The couch was brown, alluring, and soft.
3. The pot was a red as a tongue after eating a cherry flavored ring pop.
4. He fell down like an old tree falling down in a storm.
5. His hair was long like a horse's tail, golden like the sun, and flows in the wind like a flower. a subject of discourse, discussion, meditation, or composition Example Onomatopoeia formation of words in imitation of natural sounds Example Clichè a trite phrase or expression Example Ballad a narrative poem usually in stanzas of 2 or 4 lines and suitable for singing Example Allegory a story which the characters and event are symbols expressing truths about life Example 1. 1. Life it just a game and we are just the players.
2. The snow is a blanket of white; pure and good.
3. He is the pointing gun, we are the bullets of his desire.
4. My life is like a river,
Sometimes rough and rapid.
Longing for some release.
Trying to calm the storm.
Waiting for the sun to shine overhead.
Looking for the rainbow in the sky.
My life is like a river.
I like the gentle bends.
I like the smooth waters.
They bring me peace and joy.
I do not like the rocks and currents.
They are struggles in my life.
5. My life is a book.
Most of the time it’s open,
But sometimes I just want to close it.
Some chapters are long while others are short.
Some chapters are boring while others are exciting. 1. The duck quacked and the lily pad.
2. The last firework went off with a large boom.
3. Tess clicked on the mouse to exit the window.
4. The dancer hit her foot on the floor with a loud tap.
5. The fire went out with a quiet sizzle. 1. Oscar was as brave as a lion in the haunted house.
2. She said meeting her ex-boyfriend was a waste of time.
3. All that glitters is not gold.
4. According our relationship opposites attract.
5. Laughter is the best medicine when you're feeling sad. Connotation Term is what a word suggests beyond its basic definition Examples 1. Wanda has acted like a snake since day one.
2. After auditions, the judges knew Gale was a star.
3. The boy was always a child.
4. Spending his days on the couch, it was fair to proclaim Archer a sloth.
5. She told on me like the rat she is. Denotation Direct meaning of a word Examples 1. The snake slithered across the tall grass.
2. The star gleamed brightly in the dark night sky.
3. Being the youngest child, Chester always got what he wanted.
4. Sleeping in the crook of a tree blanch the sloth slept calmly.
5. The trap slammed closed on the unsuspecting rat. Parable Slant Rhyme Sonnet Examples Examples Examples stories which serve to illustrate a moral point 1. The Boy Who Cried Wolf 1. In my room I stood,
in the worst mood.
2. I sat in the dark,
sulking with my broken heart.
3. George walked by,
wanting another piece of pie.
4. They told her she had the body of a goddess,
but she was just too modest.
5. Alexis was always lovely,
while Maggie was funny. words that sound good together but don't actually rhyme 14-line verse form usually having one of several conventional rhyme schemes. 1. Ted bought a new dog.
It had light brown hair,
was an easy scare,
and tried to bring home a log.
Its best friend was a frog.
He named it Claire,
she ate half a lawn chair,
and tried to fight a grizzly bear.
One day Claire wasn't in the yard.
Ted searched for her endlessly.
His search was long and hard,
Ted miss Claire terribly.
The next day he was caught off guard,
by a small dog running to him merrily. -Shel Silverstein 1. “I was terribly shocked her nose was not growing like Pinocchio’s.” This refers to the story of Pinocchio, where his nose grew whenever he told a lie.
2. "Sweet pickles were her Achilles’ heel.” This means that her weakness was her love of pickles.
3. “Adam was a real Romeo with the girls in our school.” Romeo was a character in Shakespeare’s play, Romeo and Juliet, and was very romantic in expressing his love for Juliet.
4. “I thought the software would be useful, but it was a Trojan Horse.” This refers to the horse that the Greeks built that contained all the soldiers.
5. “When Phillis lost her job, she acted like a Scrooge, and refused to buy anything that wasn’t $0.99 or less.” Scrooge was an extremely cheap and salty character from Charles Dickens’, A Christmas Carol. Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes Fountain, coolest fountain,
Cool fountain of love,
Where all the sweet birds come
For comforting-but one,
A widow turtledove,
At once the nightingale,
That wicked bird, came by,
And spoke these honied words:
"My lady, if you will,
I shall be your slave."
"You are my enemy:
Begone, you are not true!"
Green boughs no longer rest me,
Nor any budding grove.
Clear springs, where there are such,
Turn muddy at my touch.
I want no spouse to love
Nor any children either.
I forego that pleasure and their comfort too.
No, leave me; you are false
And wicked-vile, untrue!
I'll never be your mistress!
I'll never marry you! 'Twas Friday morn when we set sail,
And we had not got far from land,
When the Captain, he spied a lovely mermaid,
With a comb and a glass in her hand. I'll tell a tale, a thrilling tale of love beyond compare
I knew a lad not long ago more gorgeous than any I've seen.
And in his eyes I found my self a'falling in love with the swain.
Oh, the glorious fellow I met by the ocean with eyes of deep-sea green!
He was a rugged sailor man with eyes of deep-sea green,
And I a maid, a tavern maid! Whose living was serving beer.
So with a kiss and with a wave, off on his boat he sailed
And left me on the dock, the theif! Without my heart, oh dear!
And with a heart that's lost at sea, I go on living still.
I still am now still serving beer in that tavern by the sea.
And though the pay check's still the same, the money won't go as far
For now I feed not just myself, but my little one and me!
So let that be a lesson, dear, and keep your heart safely hid.
I gave mine to a sailing thief with gorgeous eyes of green.
Save yours for a sweeter lad who makes the land his home.
Ah me! If only I'd never met that sailor by the sea! Emily Dickinson
I heard a fly buzz when I died;
The stillness round my form
Was like the stillness in the air
Between the heaves of storm. Turn back the heart you've turned away
Give back your kissing breath
Leave not my love as you have left
The broken hearts of yesterday
But wait, be still, don't lose this way
Affection now, for what you guess
May be something more, could be less
Accept my love, live for today. James DeFord Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date.
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed. William Shakespeare 1. The last scene in Romeo and Juliet. 1. In this example by Carl Sandburg, in Early Moon, the long “o” sounds old or mysterious.
“Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things. So old it is that no man knows how and why the first poems came.” 2. The mood is set by using the long “A” in this excerpt from Cormac McCarthy's book, Outer Dark:
“And stepping softly with her air of blooded ruin about the glade in a frail agony of grace she trailed her rags through dust and ashes, circling the dead fire, the charred billets and chalk bones, the little calcined ribcage.” 1. Kyla karate kicked Katelynn's kidney.
2. Baby blue baboons bit butterfly butts.
3. Peter picked a pick of pickled peppers
4. Molly man-handled Maddie.
5. Willy the white walrus waddled westward. 1. I love to write
Day and night
What would my heart do
But cry, sigh and be blue
If I could not write
2. Writing feels good
And I know it should
Who could have knew
That what I do
Is write, write, write Fog by Carl Sandburg
The fog comes
on little cat feet.
It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on. Feelings, Now by Katherine Foreman
Some kind of attraction that is neither
Animal, vegetable, nor mineral, a power not
Solar, fusion, or magnetic
And it is all in my head that
I could see into his
And find myself sitting there. After the Sea-Ship by Walt Whitman
After the Sea-Ship—after the whistling winds;
After the white-gray sails, taut to their spars and ropes,
Below, a myriad, myriad waves, hastening, lifting up their necks,
Tending in ceaseless flow toward the track of the ship. Disappointments by Vivian Gilbert Zabel
Every life has a room
where memories are stored:
A box of special occasions here,
Shelves of shared laughter there.
But back in the shadows
Lurks a trunk locked tight,
Not to be opened and searched.
There hide disappointments
Which darken every heart. Probably the most famous example of allegory is the movie The Wizard of Oz, in which cowardice is embodied in the lion, thoughtless panic in the scarecrow, and so on. (Some have claimed that L. Frank Baum's Oz books are also political allegories: that the scarecrow represents an agricultural past, for example, and the tin woodsman the industrial future.) Earnest Hemingway - minimalistic dialogue, masculine bias with a particular gritty ambiance.
Jane Austin - Virtuous femininity, naivety, gossipy dialogue.
Edgar Allan Poe - Gothic, detective, speculative, a bit on the grotesque.
Franz Kafka - Surreal big time. Man Struggles Against Nature: Man is always at battle with human nature, whether the drives described are sexual, material or against the aging process itself.
Man Struggles Against Societal Pressure: Mankind is always struggling to determine if societal pressure is best for living. Check out books like Revolutionary Road or Mrs. Dalloway for examples of characters who know how society says they should live, but feel society's dictation is contrary to what makes them happy.
Man Struggles to Understand Divinity: Mankind tries to understand and make peace with God, but satisfaction is elusive and difficult.
Crime Does Not Pay: A popular theme played out in books throughout time is the concept that honesty is honored and criminals will eventually be caught. Crime and Punishment and "The Telltale Heart" are two stories written on this theme.
Overcoming Adversity: Many books laud characters who accept a tough situation and turn it into triumph. Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With the Wind exemplifies a shrewd person who finds a way to come out on top despite failed relationships and an economic depression after the Civil War.
Good V. Evil: A theme where the good and the bad clash. Resources http://www.life123.com/parenting/education/children-reading/12-most-common-themes-in-literature.shtml