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Project in Science

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by

Angel Mancenido

on 25 August 2014

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Transcript of Project in Science

Project in Science
Basic Science Inquiry Skills
FORMULATING A SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM
Rust is formed in metals when it is exposed to oxygen and moisture in air and in the presence of acid.
Solutions
A mixture is consist of two or more pure substances which are not chemically bonded together
each constituent substance in a mixture retains its own properties
constituents can be separated by physical methods

Mixtures can be made by:
1. elements + elements
2. elements + compounds
3. compounds + compounds
ELEMENT
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical methods
COMPOUND
consist of two or more elements which are chemically bonded together
ACIDS AND BASES
ACIDS BASES
How will you know if a Mixture is Acidic or Basic?
By using:

INTEGRATED SCIENCE INQUIRY SKILLS
MIXTURE
A solution is a combination of different materials such as the mixture is evenly distributed.
A solution is often clear and transparent.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture. It is a mixture of one phase only. The components are so well mixed that all parts of the solution appear the same. Solutions have the same composition and properties throughout.
The solute cannot be separated from the solvent through filtration because these are so small that they pass through the filter paper or cheesecloth.
The solution that contains the maximum amount of the solute dissolved by a given amount of solvent is called a saturated solution. A solution is unsaturated when it contains less solute than the maximum amount it can dissolve at a given temperature.
The factors that affect how fast a solid solute dissolves are stirring, the particle size, temperature and the nature of solute.
OBSERVATION
- the most fundamental of all the processes
COMMUNICATION
- actually refers to a group of skill, all of which represent some form of systematic data
CLASSIFICATION
- is the process of grouping objects on the basis of observable traits
MEASUREMENT
- is the assignment of numbers to objects of events
PREDICTING
- deals with projecting events based upon a body of information
- based on recurring patterns
INFERRING
- inventive process in which an assumption of cause is generated to explain an observed event
- explanation of an observation and usually based on the person's experience.
- must contain the effect or the result of the problem
FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS
- testable through an experiment
- educated guess
IDENTIFYING VARIABLES
* Manipulated or Independent Variable
- the factor that is changed throughout the experiment
* Responding or Dependent Variable
* Controlled Variable
- something that is constant and unchanged in an experiment
DEFINING VARIABLES OPERATIONALLY
- An operational definition of a variable is:
1. What is observed
2. What is measured
DESIGNING AN INVESTIGATION
- fair test is needed to come up with the valid results
DESCRIBING RELATIONSHIPS
- investigators make observations and look into patterns or trends
COLLECTING AND ANALYZING DATA
- involves looking into science concepts behind trends observed
-the effect or result of the experiment
ANGELIE MAE G. MANCENIDO
each element is different from another element
the properties of a compound are different from those of its constituent elements using chemical methods such as heat or electricity
pure substance
sour taste
electrolytes
reacts with metals
sometimes sweet
pH is less than 7
bitter taste
electrolytes
reacts with fats to produce soap (saponification)
slippery
pH is more than 7

- a dye that changes into a different color depending on whether it is an acid or base
- can come from plant resources
2. Litmus

1. Indicator
- a dye taken from the lichen plant
- red to blue = basic
blue to red = acidic
*pH Scale*
extends from 0-14
below 7 = acid
7= neutral
above 7= base
Importance of pH
1. pH and the Human body
- When the pH of your blood is high or low, it has an effect in breathing.
2. Use of pH in Food Processing and Fruit Preservation
- changes in pH affect the growth of microorganisms, which cause food spoilage
3. Control of pH in Soil
- The pH affects how much nutrients from the soil become available to plants and how well the plants grow.
4. pH of Rainwater
- The average pH of rain in 5.6. This slightly acidic pH is due to the presence of carbon dioxide in the air. Rainwater less than the pH of 5.6 is called" acid rain".
5. Maintaining pH of Personal Care Products
- Most personal care products have pH kept at specific levels to avoid harmful effects on the body.
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